Only recently in January 2010 did Montana begin requiring cattle vaccination in portions of Beaverhead, Gallatin, Madison and Park counties with Montana taxpayers picking up half the rancher's costs.
While the Interagency Bison Management Plan stated that vaccinating cattle "would be required if 100% voluntary vaccination were not achieved," the State of Montana did not require cattle vaccination until the new brucellosis rules were put into effect by Veterinary Services, a branch of USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service.
The new federal rules have resulted in a net economic benefit of $5.5 to $11.5 million for Montana ranchers.
Sources: IBMP Record of Decision, pages 20-21, (2000). "Half of the reimbursement is provided through the state's general fund, while half is provided by the cattle industry." MDOL Media Release: "MDOL's DSA Worth Millions to Cattle Producers, State," March 4, 2011 Online: http://liv.mt.gov/liv/news/2011/20110304.asp
Yellowstone National Park is proposing to vaccinate wild bison with an experimental vaccine developed for cattle inside the Park for the next 30 years and beyond.
For more information see:
BFC Science web page Yellowstone Bison Vaccination Program
News Editorial 6/07/10-- Bison air-rifle brucellosis vaccination is waste of effort, Bozeman Daily Chronicle: