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Bison Conservation Papers

FAIR USE NOTICE: Reproduction of the bison research on this site is for nonprofit educational purposes only, and is posted only for the purposes of scholarly research and investigation of the status of Bison bison and should not be used for further distribution.

"Today, the plains bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct within its original range."  
C.H. Freese, Second chance for the plains bison

"Current management of private, state and Federal bison herds is leading towards domestication of bison that threatens their wild character and limits important natural selection processes." 
Position Statement of the Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society on Wild Bison in Montana

"Yellowstone National Park is the only place in the lower 48 States where bison have existed in a wild state since prehistoric times. Bison occupied the region encompassing the park from shortly after recession of the last glaciers 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, until the 19th century when they came close to extirpation."
C. Cormack Gates, The Ecology of Bison Movements and Distribution in and beyond Yellowstone National Park

"The Bison of Yellowstone National Park are unique among bison herds in the United States, being descendants, in part, of the only continuously wild herd in this country."
Margaret Mary Meagher, The Bison of Yellowstone National Park

Allendorf et al. April 2008. Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution Volume 23 No.6: 327-337. (PDF, 416kb, 11 pages)

Allendorf et al. November 2001. The problems with hybrids: setting conservation guidelines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution Volume 16 No.11: 613-622. (PDF, 160kb, 10 pages)

American Bison Society, edited by Kent H. Redford and Eva Fearn. ABS WORKING PAPER NO. 1 MAY 2007. ECOLOGICAL FUTURE OF BISON IN NORTH AMERICA: A Report from a Multi-Stakeholder, Transboundary Meeting. pp 72. (PDF, 1.5MB, 72 pages)

Askins et al. 2007. CONSERVATION OF GRASSLAND BIRDS IN NORTH AMERICA: UNDERSTANDING ECOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN DIFFERENT REGIONS. Ornithological Monographs Volume 2007 No. 64: 1-46.
(PDF, 17.4MB, 92 pages)

Augustine and Frank. November 2001. Effects of Migratory Grazers on Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nitrogen Properties in a Grassland Ecosystem. Ecology Volume 82 No. 11: 3149-3162. (PDF, 732kb, 15 pages)

Bailey, James A. July 21, 2010. Petition to list plains bison as threatened under the ESA. (PDF, 226kb, 29 pages) (EXCEL Table 1, EXCEL Table 2, EXCEL Table 3, EXCEL Table 4)

Bailey, James A. September 9, 2008. Genetic Diversity of Yellowstone Bison, communication to Interagency Bison Management Partners. (PDF, 56kb, 4 pages)

Berger, Joel. 2004. The Last Mile: How to Sustain Long-Distance Migration in Mammals. Conservation Biology 18(2): 320-331. (PDF, 504kb, 12 pages)

Biondini et al. September 1999. Bison Use of Fire-Managed Remnant Prairies. Journal of Range Management Volume 52 No. 5: 454-461. (PDF, 528kb, 9 pages)

Bjornlie, Daniel D. and Robert A. Garrott. 2001. Effects of Winter Road Grooming on Bison in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 65(3): 560-572. (PDF, 1MB, 14 pages)

Boyd, Delaney P. 2003. Conservation of North American Bison: Status and Recommendations. Master’s Dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. 235 pp. (PDF, 3.1MB, 235 pages)

Boyd, Delaney P. and C. Cormack Gates. 2006. A Brief Review of the Status of Plains Bison in North America. JOW 45(2): 15-21. (PDF, 286kb, 7 pages)

Buffalo Field Campaign. March 2012. Briefing Paper: Historical overview of the wild buffalo and their status today in Yellowstone (Word Document, 3.7MB)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: American bison world heritage. (Word Document, 416kb)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Bison on Gallatin National Forest. (Word Document, 877kb)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Congressional Hearings. (Word Document, 47kb)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: GAO Report on Yellowstone bison. (Word Document, 2.6MB)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Horse Butte bison habitat. (Word Document, 1.0MB)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: IBMP Update. (Word Document, 4.1MB)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Petition to Stop Bison Slaughter. (Word Document, 2.8MB)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: RTR land deal. (Word Document, 332kb)

Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: USFWS endangered species finding.
(Word Document, 1.0MB)

Butler, David R. 2006. Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems. Geomorphology 79: 448–459. (PDF, 977kb, 12 pages)

Cannon, Kenneth P. 1992. Woodland or Plains: A Multivariate Analysis of Prehistoric Bison from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Seventh Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands, Jacksonville, Florida.

Cannon, Kenneth P. 1997. The Analysis of a Late Holocene Bison Skull from Fawn Creek, Lemhi County, Idaho, and Its Implications for Understanding the History and Ecology of Bison in the Intermountain West. Report Prepared for The Department of Agriculture, United States Forest Service, Salmon-Challis National Forest, Salmon, Idaho. 82 pp. (PDF, 2.2MB, 82 pages)

Cannon, Kenneth P. 2001. WHAT THE PAST CAN PROVIDE: CONTRIBUTION OF PREHISTORIC BISON STUDIES TO MODERN BISON MANAGEMENT. Great Plains Research 11(1): 145-174.
(PDF, 1MB, 30 pages)

Cheville, Norman F., Dale R. McCullough, Lee R. Paulson. 1998. Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 186 pp.(PDF, 3.1MB, 207 pages)

Christianson, David A., Peter J. P. Gogan, Kevin M. Podruzny, and Edward M. Olexa. 2005. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 33(2): 669-676. (PDF, 524kb, 8 pages)

Collins, Scott L., Alan K. Knapp, John M. Briggs, John M. Blair, Ernest M. Steinauer. 1998. Modulation of Diversity by Grazing and Mowing in Native Tallgrass Prairie. Science, New Series, 280(5364): 745-747.
(PDF, 212kb, 4 pages)

Cope, E.D. 1885. The Present Condition of the Yellowstone National Park. The American Naturalist 19(11): 1037-1040. (PDF, 128kb, 5 pages)

Coppedge and Shaw. May 1998. Bison grazing patterns on seasonally burned tallgrass prairie. Journal of Range Management 51(3): 258-264. (PDF, 840kb, 7 pages)

Coppedge and Shaw. July 1997. Effects of Horning and Rubbing Behavior by Bison (Bison bison) on Woody Vegetation in a Tallgrass Prairie Landscape. American Midland Naturalist Volume 138 No. 1: 189-196.
(PDF, 208kb, 9 pages)

Davis, L. B. and C. D. Zeier. 1978. Multi-Phase Late Period Bison Procurement at the Antonsen Site, Southwestern Montana. Pages 222-235 in L. B. Davis, and M. Wilson, editors. Bison Procurement and Utilization: A Symposium, Plains Anthropologist Memoir 14 23(82), Pt. 2.

Day and Detling. January 1990. Changes in Grass Leaf Water Relations Following Bison Urine Deposition. American Midland Naturalist Volume 123 No. 1: 171-178. (PDF, 216kb, 9 pages)

DelGiudice, Glenn D., Francis J. Singer, Ulysses S. Seal, Gillian Bowser. January, 1994. Physiological Responses of Yellowstone Bison to Winter Nutritional Deprivation. The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 58, No. 1., pp. 24-34. (PDF, 556k, 12 pages)

Derr and Halbert. November 18, 2008. Is Genetic Integrity Important in the Ecological Restoration of Bison? Wildlife Conservation Society meeting, Rapid City, South Dakota. pp. 32. (Power point presentation)

Derr, James. 2009. Bison Conservation Genetics and Disease presentation. Department of Veterinary Pathobiology and the Graduate Faculty of Genetics Texas AgriLIFE Research, Texas A & M University, College of Veterinary Medicine. (PDF, 2MB, 30 pages)

Derr. October 24, 2006. American Bison: The Ultimate Genetic Survivor. The Ecological Future of North American Bison, Denver, Colorado. pp. 38. (PDF, 1.9MB, 38 pages)

Dratch, Peter A. 2011. Management of bison conservation herds with historic cattle ancestry. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Inventory and Monitoring Initiative. American Bison Society Meeting on Bison Ecological Restoration March 23-25, 2011, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (PDF, 2.2MB, 15 pages)

Dratch, P. A., and P. J. P. Gogan. Bison Conservation Initiative: Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop: report and recommendations. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/BRMD/NRR—2010/257. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. (PDF, 590kb, 50 pages) Online: http://www.nature.nps.gov/biology/wildlifemanagement/bison_report.cfm

Douglas, K.C., et al. 2011. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of Bison bison and bison–cattle hybrids: Function and phylogeny. Mitochondrion 11: 166–175. (PDF, 500kb, 10 pages)

Fallon. 2009. The ecological importance of bison in mixed-grass prairie ecosystems. (Word Document, 3.7MB, 5 pages)

Fleischner. September 1994. Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America. Conservation Biology Volume 8 No. 3: 629-644. (PDF, 748kb, 17 pages)

Flores, Dan. 1991. Bison Ecology and Bison Diplomacy: The Southern Plains from 1800 to 1850. Journal of American History 78(2): 465-485. (PDF, 740kb, 22 pages)

Frank et al. July 1998. The Ecology of the Earth's Grazing Ecosystems. BioScience Volume 48 No. 7: 513-521. (PDF, 960kb, 14 pages)

Frankham. 2003. Genetics and conservation biology. C. R. Biologies 326: S22–S29. (PDF, 108kb, 8 pages)

Frankham. 2005. Genetics and extinction. Biological Conservation 126: 131–140. (PDF, 220kb, 10 pages)

Frankham. 2005. Stress and adaptation in conservation genetics. JOURNAL OF EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY 18: 750–755. (PDF, 116kb, 17 pages)

Freese, Curtis H., Keith E. Aune, Delaney P. Boyd, James N. Derr, Steve C. Forrest, C. Cormack Gates, Peter J.P. Gogan, Shaun M. Grassel, Natalie D. Halbert, Kyran Kunkel, Kent H. Redford. 2007. Second chance for the plains bison. Biological Conservation 136(2): 175-184. (PDF, 1.1MB, 11 pages)

Fuller. April 2006. Yellowstone bison population counts (Image)

Gaggiotti. April 30, 2003. Genetic threats to population persistence. Ann. Zool. Fennici 40: 155-168.
(PDF, 336kb, 14 pages)

GAO. IBMP expenditures 2002-2007 (Image)

GAO. November 30, 1999. WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT Negotiations on a Long-Term Plan for Managing Yellowstone Bison Still Ongoing. Report to Congressional Requesters, United States General Accounting Office. pp. 51.
(PDF, 376kb, 51 pages)

GAO. July 10, 1997. WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT Issues Concerning the Management of Bison and Elk Herds in Yellowstone National Park. Victor S. Rezendes Testimony Before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation and Recreation, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, U.S. Senate. United States General Accounting Office. pp. 23. (PDF, 356kb, 23 pages)

GAO. March 20, 2007. YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK Preliminary Observations on the Implementation of the Interagency Bison Management Plan. Robin M. Nazzaro Testimony Before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands, Committee on Natural Resources, U.S. House of Representatives. United States Government Accountability Office. pp. 14. (PDF, 836kb, 14 pages)

GAO. October 1992. WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT Many Issues Unresolved In Yellowstone Bison-Cattle Brucellosis Conflict. Report to the Honorable Alan Cranston, U.S. Senate. United States General Accounting Office. pp. 40.
(PDF, 3.1MB, 40 pages)

GAO. March 2008. YELLOWSTONE BISON Interagency Plan and Agencies' Management Need Improvement to Better Address Bison-Cattle Brucellosis Controversy. Report to Congressional Requesters, United States Government Accountability Office. pp. 52. (PDF, 3.2MB, 52 pages)

Gardipee, Florence M. 2007. DEVELOPMENT OF FECAL DNA SAMPLING METHODS TO ASSESS GENETIC POPULATION STRUCTURE OF GREATER YELLOWSTONE BISON. Master’s Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. 63 pp. (PDF, 472kb, 63 pages)

Gardipee et al. June 2008. Strong substructure of Greater Yellowstone Area bison revealed by mitochondrial DNA from fecal samples. The University of Montana and National Park Service. pp. 28. (Powerpoint, 27.14MB)

Gates, C. Cormack, Chris Hugenholtz, Bill Ripple. 2011. FROM THE GROUND UP Cascading ecological effects of bison. Faculty of Environmental Design University of Calgary, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society Oregon State University. American Bison Society Meeting on Bison Ecological Restoration March 23-25, 2011, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (PDF, 1.8MB, 20 pages)

Gates, C. Cormack, Brad Stelfox, Tyler Muhly, Tom Chowns, Robert J. Hudson. 2005. THE ECOLOGY OF BISON MOVEMENTS AND DISTRIBUTION IN AND BEYOND YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, A Critical Review With Implications for Winter Use and Transboundary Population Management. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. 329 pp. (PDF, 7.9MB, 329 pages)

Gates et al. Map of Potential Bison Habitat in Greater Yellowstone(Image)

Gates et al. Map of Yellowstone bison winter range and corridors (Image)

Geist, Darrell. 2012. The endangered circumstances and status of wild American bison in North America today.
(Word Document, 45kb, 5 pages)

Geist, Darrell. 2007. Status review of public lands grazing on the Gallatin National Forest Hebgen Lake and Gardiner Ranger Districts, A critique of land management decisions on National Forest lands and their impact on wild bison in Yellowstone. Unpublished report, Buffalo Field Campaign.
(PDF, 1.1MB, 7 pages)

Geist, Darrell, Gardiner and Hebgen Lake Public Lands Grazing (Excel, 36kb, 1 pages)

Geremia, Chris, P. J. White, Rick L. Wallen, Fred G. R. Watson, John J. Treanor, John Borkowski, Christopher S. Potter, Robert L. Crabtree. February 2011. Predicting Bison Migration out of Yellowstone National Park Using Bayesian Models. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16848. (PDF, 284kb, 9 pages)

GOGAN, PETER J. P., KEVIN M. PODRUZNY, EDWARD M. OLEXA, HELGA IHSLE PAC, KEVIN L. FREY. 2005. Yellowstone Bison Fetal Development and Phenology of Parturition. JOURNAL OF WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT 69(4): 1716–1730. (PDF, 256k, 15 pages)

Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center. 2006. Yellowstone National Park Ethnography Overview. 9 pp. (PDF, 92kb, 9 pages)

Green et al. October 1997. Spring Feeding on Ungulate Carcasses by Grizzly Bears in Yellowstone National Park. The Journal of Wildlife Management Volume 61 No. 4: 1040-1055. (PDF, 612kb, 17 pages)

Gross, John E. and Guiming Wang. January 2005. Effects of Population Control Strategies on Retention of Genetic Diversity in National Park Service Bison (Bison bison) Herds. Final Report Submitted to Yellowstone Research Group USGS-BRD, Department of Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717. (PDF, 796kb, 38 pages)

GROSS, J. E., G. WANG, N. D. HALBERT, P. A. GOGAN, J. N. DERR, AND J. W. TEMPLETON. March 2006. Effects of Population Control Strategies on Retention of Genetic Diversity in National Park Service Bison (Bison bison) Herds. Revised Final Report Submitted to Yellowstone Research Group USGS-BRD, Department of Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717. (PDF, 260kb, 31 pages)

Gunther and Haroldson. November 1997. Comments on the importance of bison to grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Yellowstone National Park and Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team. pp. 2. (PDF, 392kb, 2 pages)

Halbert and Derr. 2008. Patterns of genetic variation in US federal bison herds. Molecular Ecology 17: 4963–4977. (PDF, 1.1MB, 15 pages)

Halbert, Natalie D. 2003. THE UTILIZATION OF GENETIC MARKERS TO RESOLVE MODERN MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN HISTORIC BISON POPULATIONS - IMPLICATIONS FOR SPECIES CONSERVATION. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 213 pp.
(PDF, 336kb, 10 pages)

Halbert, Natalie D. and James N. Derr. 2007. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Cattle Introgression into US Federal Bison Herds. Journal of Heredity 98(1): 1–12.
(PDF, 224kb, 12 pages)

HALBERT, NATALIE D., PETER J. P. GOGAN, PHILIP W. HEDRICK, JACQUELYN M. WAHL, AND JAMES N. DERR. 2012. Genetic Population Substructure in Bison at Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Heredity Advance Access published February 8, 2012. (PDF, 550kb, 11 pages)

Hardy, Amanda, Western Transportation Institute, Steve Willer and Elizabeth Roberts, American Wildlands Geographic Information Systems Lab. January 21, 2008. A Preliminary Assessment of Wildlife-Transportation Issues in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. (PDF, 588kb, 95 pages)

Haroldson et al. 1997. Yellowstone grizzly bear investigations: annual report of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team 1997. U.S. Geological Survey, Bozeman, Montana. (PDF, 736kb, 47 pages)

Hartnett et al. September 1996. Effects of Bison Grazing, Fire, and Topography on Floristic Diversity in Tallgrass Prairie. Journal of Range Management Volume 49 No. 5: 413-420. (PDF, 608kb, 9 pages)

Hedrick, Philip W. Bison Conservation Genetics. American Bison Society Meeting on Bison Ecological Restoration March 23-25, 2011, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (PDF, 918k, 15 pages) Online: http://www.americanbisonsocietyonline.org/ABSMeetings/tabid/5413/Default.aspx

Hedrick. 2009. Conservation Genetics and North American Bison (Bison bison). Journal of Heredity 100(4): 411–420. (PDF, 252kb, 10 pages)

Hedrick, Philip, W. 2010. Cattle ancestry in bison- explanations for higher mtDNA than autosomal ancestry. Molecular Ecology 19:3328–3335. (PDF, 224kb, 8 pages)

Hornaday, William T. 1889. The Extermination of the American Bison, From the Report of the National Museum, 1886-’87, pp: 369-548, Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Washington, D.C. Republished 2006 by The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, Project Gutenberg EBook ™, Fairbanks, Alaska.
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17748/17748-h/17748-h.htm

Hornaday. Map of American bison range (Image)

Intergovernmental-InterTribal Information Exchange Meeting for Yellowstone National Park. June 5, 2008. Transcript of the Proceedings Held at Mammoth Elementary School Yellowstone National Park, Mammoth, Wyoming.
(PDF, 704kb, 191 pages)

Isenberg, Andrew C. 2000. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 206 pp. (Introduction PDF, 128kb, 15 pages)

Isenberg. THE LAST WILD BUFFALO HUNT TO BE HELD IN AMERICA (Image)

IUCN. 2010. American Bison Status Survey and Conservation Guidelines 2010. Edited by C. Cormack Gates, Curtis H. Freese, Peter J.P. Gogan, and Mandy Kotzman. Gland Switzerland, IUCN. pp 154. (PDF, 3.6MB, 154 pages)

Jim Peaco, NPS. Bison wallowing Little America Flats (Image)

Joern. April 2005. Disturbance by Fire Frequency and Bison Grazing Modulate Grasshopper Assemblages in Tallgrass Prairie. Ecology Volume 86 No. 4: 861-873. (PDF, 3.4MB, 15 pages)

Jourdonnais, Craig, Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks. 2006. Winter Range Assessment for Bison in the Upper Gallatin River Drainage: DRAFT FWP population objective for bison wintering in the Taylor Fork/Porcupine areas. 11 pp. (PDF, 45.1MB, 11 pages)

Kantor. 2007. Ethnic Cleansing and America's Creation of National Parks. Public Land & Resources Law Review Volume 28. pp. 27. (PDF, 68kb, 27 pages)

Kilpatrick et al. 2009. Wildlife-livestock conflict: the risk of pathogen transmission from bison to cattle outside Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Applied Ecology. pp. 10.. (PDF, 3.8MB, 10 pages)

Kipp and Gardipee. September 13, 2007. Genetic population structure and differential male behavior among Greater Yellowstone Area bison breeding groups. (Powerpoint, 16.19MB)

Knapp, Alan K., John M. Blair, John M. Briggs, Scott L. Collins, David C. Hartnett, Loretta C. Johnson, E. Gene Towne. 1999. The Keystone Role of Bison in North American Tallgrass Prairie, Bison increase habitat heterogeneity and alter a broad array of plant, community, and ecosystem processes. BioScience 49(1): 39-50. (PDF, 1.2MB, 12 pages)

LaDuke. May/June 2000. buffalo nation. Sierra: 66-73. (PDF, 2.8MB, 8 pages)

Lancaster. Spring 2005. RESTRAINING YELLOWSTONE’S ROAMING BISON. JOURNAL OF LAND USE Volume 20(2): 427-454. (PDF, 108kb, 28 pages)

Lemke, Thomas O., Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. February 14, 2006. Bison Habitat Evaluation East of the Yellowstone River from Dome Mountain to YNP. (Word Doc, 34kb, 4 pages)

Lemke, Thomas O., Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. July 7, 1997. Wildlife Habitat and Wildlife Use On and Near the Royal Teton Ranch. (PDF, 488kb, 5 pages)

Looking Horse. April 2008. To Save the Buffalo Nation. pp 2. (PDF, 58kb, 2 pages)

Luikart et al. April 23, 2009. Conserving Genetic Diversity in Yellowstone Bison, Draft Bison genetics research outline. pp. 6. (PDF, 344kb, 6 pages)

Lyman, R. Lee and Steve Wolverton. February 2002. The Late Prehistoric-Early Historic Game Sink in the Northwestern United States Conservation Biology 16(1): 73-85 (PDF, 664kb, 13 pages)

Mattson and Merrill. August 2002. Extirpations of Grizzly Bears in the Contiguous United States, 1850–2000. Conservation Biology Volume 16 No. 4: 1123–1136. (PDF, 960kb, 15 pages)

Meagher, Margaret M., Mark L. Taper, and Christopher L. Jerde. 2002. Recent Changes in Population Distribution: The Pelican Bison and the Domino Effect. Anderson, R.J., and D. Harmon, eds. Yellowstone Lake: Hotbed of Chaos or Reservoir of Resilience? Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. October 8–10, 2001, Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., and Hancock, Mich.: Yellowstone Center for Resources and The George Wright Society. (PDF, 230k, 16 pages)

Meagher, Margaret M. 1973. The Bison of Yellowstone National Park. Scientific Monograph Series Number One. National Park Service, Washington, D.C. 161 pp. (PDF, 4.2MB, 178 pages)


Meagher, M. and Margaret E. Meyer. 1994. On the Origin of Brucellosis in Bison of Yellowstone National Park: A Review. Conservation Biology 8(3): 645-653. (PDF, 988kb, 213 pages)

Meagher. June 16, 1986. Bison bison. Mammalian Species No. 266: 1-8. (PDF, 1.47MB, 9 pages)

Moskowitz and Romaniello. October 2002. Assessing the Full Cost of the Federal Grazing Program. Prepared for the Center for Biological Diversity in cooperation with American Lands, Western Watersheds Project, Oregon Natural Desert Association, Forest Guardians, Committee for Idaho’s High Desert and the National Public Lands Grazing Campaign. pp. 36. (PDF, 348kb, 36 pages)

Nabokov and Loendorf. 2000. American Indians and Yellowstone National Park. A Documentary Overview submitted to the National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Office, Denver, Colorado. pp. 397. (PDF, 5.9MB, 397 pages)

Nie. Summer, 2008. THE USE OF CO-MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTED LAND-USE DESIGNATIONS TO PROTECT TRIBAL CULTURAL RESOURCES AND RESERVED TREATY RIGHTS ON FEDERAL LANDS. Natural Resources Journal Volume 48. pp. 66. (PDF, 188kb, 66 pages)

News article "Bison Grazing Increases Biodiversity in Grasslands"- Science Daily News (PDF, 20kb, 1 page)

O'Brien et al. June 2008. Non-invasive Fecal DNA Sampling Methods for Conservation Genetics Studies of Bison In Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks. (Power point presentation)

Olexa, Edward M. and Peter J.P. Gogan. 2007. Spatial Population Structure of Yellowstone Bison. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71(5): 1531-1538. (PDF, 440kb, 8 pages)

Ostler. Winter 1999. "They Regard Their Passing As Wakan": Interpreting Western Sioux Explanations for the Bison's Decline. The Western Historical Quarterly Volume 30 No. 4: 475-497. (PDF, 596kb, 26 pages)

Pennisi. November 26, 2004. Ice Ages May Explain Ancient Bison's Boom-Bust History. Science New Series Volume 306 No. 5701: 1454. (PDF, 1.2MB, 2 pages)

Plumb et al. 2009. Carrying capacity, migration, and dispersal in Yellowstone bison. Biological Conservation 142: 2377–2387. (PDF, 763kb, 11 pages)

Plumb, Glenn E. and Rosemary Sucec. 2006. A Bison Conservation History in the U.S. National Parks. JOW, Spring 2006, Vol. 45, No. 2. (PDF, 283k, 7 pages)

Polley and Wallace. November 10, 1986. The Relationship of Plant Species Heterogeneity to Soil Variation in Buffalo Wallows. The Southwestern Naturalist Volume 31 No. 4: 493-501. (PDF, 256kb, 10 pages)

Polziehn, R. O., C. M. Strobeck, J. Sheraton, R. Beech. 1995. Bovine mtDNA discovered in North American bison populations. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1638-1643. (PDF, 216kb, 7 pages)

Popper and Popper. October 1999. The Buffalo Commons: Metaphor as Method. Geographical Review Volume 89 No. 4: 491-510. (PDF, 940kb, 21 pages)

Pringle, Thomas H. Widespread Mitochondrial Disease in North American Bison. Received 07 February 2011; Posted 07 February 2011. Nature Precedings. Online: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5645/version/1

Rosas et al. 2008. Seed dispersal by Bison bison in a tallgrass prairie. Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 769-778. (PDF, 628kb, 10 pages)

SANDERSON, ERIC W., KENT H. REDFORD, BILL WEBER, KEITH AUNE, DICK BALDES, JOEL BERGER, DAVE CARTER, CHARLES CURTIN, JAMES DERR, STEVE DOBROTT, EVA FEARN, CRAIG FLEENER, STEVE FORREST, CRAIG GERLACH, C. CORMACK GATES, JOHN E. GROSS, PETER GOGAN, SHAUN GRASSEL, JODI A. HILTY, MARV JENSEN, KYRAN KUNKEL, DUANE LAMMERS, RURIK LIST, KAREN MINKOWSKI, TOM OLSON, CHRIS
PAGUE, PAUL B. ROBERTSON, AND BOB STEPHENSON. 2008. The Ecological Future of the North American Bison: Conceiving Long-Term, Large-Scale Conservation of Wildlife. Conservation Biology 22(2): 252-266.
(PDF, 956kb, 15 pages)

Sanderson et al. Map of American bison herds historical range (Image)

Schnabel, Robert. 2011. High Throughput Genomic Technologies for Bison. American Bison Society Meeting on Bison Ecological Restoration March 23-25, 2011, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (PDF, 1.5MB, 15 pages)

Schnabel, R. D., T. J. Ward, J. N. Derr. 2000. Validation of 15 microsatellites for parentage testing in North American bison, Bison bison and domestic cattle. Animal Genetics 31: 360-366. (PDF, 1.2MB, 7 pages)

Schullery, Paul and L. Whittlesey. 2006. Greater Yellowstone bison distribution and abundance in the early historical period. Pages 135–140 in A. Wondrak Biel, editors, Greater Yellowstone Public Lands: A Century of Discovery, Hard Lessons, and Bright Prospects. Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. October 17–19, 2005, Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Yellowstone Center for Resources. (PDF, 1.1MB, 43 pages)

Smith et al. 2000. WOLF–BISON INTERACTIONS IN YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. Journal of Mammalogy 81(4): 1128–1135. (PDF, 104kb, 8 pages)

Smits. Autumn 1994. The Frontier Army and the Destruction of the Buffalo: 1865-1883. The Western Historical Quarterly Volume 25 No. 3: 312-338. (PDF, 924kb, 28 pages)

Soukup. October 23, 2006. The ecological future of North American bison. Mike Soukup, NPS associate director for Natural Resource Stewardship and Science, Wildlife Conservation Society meeting on the ecological future of North American bison Denver, Colorado. Park Science, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. pp 3.
(PDF, 280kb, 3 pages)

State of Montana, Record of Decision, Interagency Bison Management Plan. December 22, 2000. 8 pp.
(PDF, 52kb, 8 pages)

Steinauer and Collins. May 2001. Feedback Loops in Ecological Hierarchies Following Urine Deposition in Tallgrass Prairie. Ecology Volume 82 No. 5: 1319-1329. (PDF, 508kb, 12 pages)

Taper, M.L., M. Meagher, C.L. Jerde. 2000. The Phenology of Space: Spatial Aspects of Bison Density Dependence in Yellowstone National Park. 113 pp.
(PDF, 2.6MB, 113 pages)

Trager et al. October 2004. Concurrent Effects of Fire Regime, Grazing and Bison Wallowing on Tallgrass Prairie Vegetation. American Midland Naturalist Volume 152 No. 2: 237-247. (PDF, 1.5MB, 12 pages)

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