Estimating probabilities of active brucellosis infection in Yellowstone bison through quantitative serology and tissue culture. (PDF, 9 pages, 308kB)
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature, report on the American Bison. (PDF, 154 pages, 3.6MB)
The International Union for Conservation of Nature has Red Listed the American bison as threatened with near extinction. Bringing bison back to North America, Surfbirds News, March 1, 2010. http://www.surfbirds.com/community-blogs/blog/2010/03/01/bringing-bison-back-to-north-america/
"Applying an ecosystem approach to brucellosis control: can an old conflict between wildlife and agriculture be succesfully managed?" by Leslie Bienen and Gary Tabor, published in the latest issue of the Ecological Society of America's Frontiers in Ecology and Environment 2006. (PDF, 9 pages, 1.4MB)
"Harvesting can increase severity of wildlife disease epidemics" by Marc Choisy and Pejman Rohani. Published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 2006. (PDF, 10 pages, 596kB)
Record of Decision for the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Bison Management Plan for the State of Montana and Yellowstone National Park - December 20, 2000. (PDF, 75 pages, 808kB)
Informational Summary of Volume I, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Bison Management Plan for the State of Montana and Yellowstone National Park. (PDF, 17 pages, 160kB)
Congressional Investigation of the Interagency Bison Management Plan by the General Accounting Office November 1999. (PDF, 51 pages, 376kB)
Conservation of North American Bison: Status and Recommendations by Delaney P. Boyd, University of Calgary, A Master's Degree Project submitted to the faculty of Environmental Design in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Environmental Design, Calgary, Alberta, April, 2003. (PDF, 3.1MB)
Genetically, Bison Don't Measure Up to Frontier Ancestors- April 2002 By MARK DERR (NYT) ABSTRACT - Genetic study led by Texas A&M geneticist Dr James Derr finds that more than 90 percent of private bison and many animals in publicly owned herds are actually bison-cow hybrids; finding reduces pool of pure bison available for preserving species to fewer than 15,000 animals. (PDF, 4 pages, 102kB)
Spatial Aspects of Bison Density Dependence in Yellowstone National Park- October 2000 This paper capitalizes on a unique opportunity provided by the record of the bison population of Yellowstone National Park (YNP). This population has been intensely monitored for almost four decades. There does not appear to be another comparable data set in existence for a very large highly gregarious herbivore (G. Caughley pers. comm. to MM). This population has a long historical record with some information dating back to 1860 (Meagher 1970, 1973). Further, the YNP bison herds have been the subject of long-term detailed and continuous ecological study since 1963. (PDF, 133 pages, 2.6MB)
Position Statement of the Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society on Wild Bison in Montana. (PDF, 2 pages, 94kB)
Governor Dave Fruedenthal, Brucellosis Solution for Elk and Cattle in Wyoming. (PDF, 7 pages, 631kB)
Allendorf et al. April 2008. Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution Volume 23 No.6: 327-337. (PDF, 416kB, 11 pages)
Allendorf et al. November 2001. The problems with hybrids: setting conservation guidelines. Trends in Ecology and Evolution Volume 16 No.11: 613-622. (PDF, 160kB, 10 pages)
American Bison Society, edited by Kent H. Redford and Eva Fearn. ABS Worsing Paper No.1 May 2007. Ecological Future of Bison in North America: A Report from a Multi-Stakeholder, Transboundary Meeting. pp 72. (PDF, 1.5MB, 72 pages)
Askins et al. 2007. Conservation of Grassland Birds in North America: Understand Ecological Processes in Different Regions. Ornithological Monographs Volume 2007 No. 64: 1-46. (PDF, 17.4MB, 92 pages)
Augustine and Frank. November 2001. Effects of Migratory Grazers on Spatial Heterogeneity of Soil Nitrogen Properties in a Grassland Ecosystem. Ecology Volume 82 No. 11: 3149-3162. (PDF, 732kB, 15 pages)
Bailey, James A. July 21, 2010. Petition to list plains bison as threatened under the ESA. (PDF, 226kB, 29 pages) (EXCEL Table 1, EXCEL Table 2, EXCEL Table 3, EXCEL Table 4)
Bailey, James A. September 9, 2008. Genetic Diversity of Yellowstone Bison, communication to Interagency Bison Management Partners. (PDF, 56kB, 4 pages)
Berger, Joel. 2004. The Last Mile: How to Sustain Long-Distance Migration in Mammals. Conservation Biology 18(2): 320-331. (PDF, 504kB, 12 pages)
Biondini et al. September 1999. Bison Use of Fire-Managed Remnant Prairies. Journal of Range Management Volume 52 No. 5: 454-461. (PDF, 528kB, 9 pages)
Bjornlie, Daniel D. and Robert A. Garrott. 2001. Effects of Winter Road Grooming on Bison in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management 65(3): 560-572. (PDF, 1MB, 14 pages)
Boyd, Delaney P. 2003. Conservation of North American Bison: Status and Recommendations. Master’s Dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. 235 pp. (PDF, 3.1MB, 235 pages)
Boyd, Delaney P. and C. Cormack Gates. 2006. A Brief Review of the Status of Plains Bison in North America. JOW 45(2): 15-21. (PDF, 286kB, 7 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. March 2012. Briefing Paper: Historical overview of the wild buffalo and their status today in Yellowstone (PDF, 1.1MB, 16 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: American bison world heritage. (PDF, 229kB, 7 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Bison on Gallatin National Forest. (PDF, 369kB, 3 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Congressional Hearings. (PDF, 127kB. 2 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: GAO Report on Yellowstone bison. (PDF, 754kB. 12 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Horse Butte bison habitat. (PDF, 164kB, 2 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Interagency Bison Management Plan (IBMP) Update. (PDF, 733kb, 7 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Petition to Stop Bison Slaughter. (PDF, 389kB, 4 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: Royal Teton Ranch (RTR) land deal. (PDF, 295kB, 2 pages)
Buffalo Field Campaign. November 2009. Briefing paper: USFWS endangered species finding. (PDF, 442kB, 8 pages)
Butler, David R. 2006. Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems. Geomorphology 79: 448–459. (PDF, 977kB, 12 pages)
Cannon, Kenneth P. 1992. Woodland or Plains: A Multivariate Analysis of Prehistoric Bison from Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming. Seventh Conference on Research and Resource Management in Parks and on Public Lands, Jacksonville, Florida.
Cannon, Kenneth P. 1997. The Analysis of a Late Holocene Bison Skull from Fawn Creek, Lemhi County, Idaho, and Its Implications for Understanding the History and Ecology of Bison in the Intermountain West. Report Prepared for The Department of Agriculture, United States Forest Service, Salmon-Challis National Forest, Salmon, Idaho. 82 pp. (PDF, 2.2MB, 82 pages)
Cannon, Kenneth P. 2001. What the Past Can Provide: Contribution of Prehistoric Bison Studies to Modern Bison Management. Great Plains Research 11(1): 145-174. (PDF, 1MB, 30 pages)
Cheville, Norman F., Dale R. McCullough, Lee R. Paulson. 1998. Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 186 pp. (PDF, 3.1MB, 207 pages)
Christianson, David A., Peter J. P. Gogan, Kevin M. Podruzny, and Edward M. Olexa. 2005. Incisor wear and age in Yellowstone bison. Wildlife Society Bulletin. 33(2): 669-676. (PDF, 524kB, 8 pages)
Collins, Scott L., Alan K. Knapp, John M. Briggs, John M. Blair, Ernest M. Steinauer. 1998. Modulation of Diversity by Grazing and Mowing in Native Tallgrass Prairie. Science, New Series, 280(5364): 745-747. (PDF, 212kB, 4 pages)
Collins, Scott, News article "Bison Grazing Increases Biodiversity in Grasslands"- Science Daily News (PDF, 20kB, 1 page)
Cope, E.D. 1885. The Present Condition of the Yellowstone National Park. The American Naturalist 19(11): 1037-1040. (PDF, 128kB, 5 pages)
Coppedge and Shaw. May 1998. Bison grazing patterns on seasonally burned tallgrass prairie. Journal of Range Management 51(3): 258-264. (PDF, 840kB, 7 pages)
Coppedge and Shaw. July 1997. Effects of Horning and Rubbing Behavior by Bison (Bison bison) on Woody Vegetation in a Tallgrass Prairie Landscape. American Midland Naturalist Volume 138 No. 1: 189-196. (PDF, 208kB, 9 pages)
Davis, L. B. and C. D. Zeier. 1978. Multi-Phase Late Period Bison Procurement at the Antonsen Site, Southwestern Montana. Pages 222-235 in L. B. Davis, and M. Wilson, editors. Bison Procurement and Utilization: A Symposium, Plains Anthropologist Memoir 14 23(82), Pt. 2.
Day and Detling. January 1990. Changes in Grass Leaf Water Relations Following Bison Urine Deposition. American Midland Naturalist Volume 123 No. 1: 171-178. (PDF, 216kB, 9 pages)
DelGiudice, Glenn D., Francis J. Singer, Ulysses S. Seal, Gillian Bowser. January, 1994. Physiological Responses of Yellowstone Bison to Winter Nutritional Deprivation. The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 58, No. 1., pp. 24-34. (PDF, 556kB, 12 pages)
Derr and Halbert. November 18, 2008. Is Genetic Integrity Important in the Ecological Restoration of Bison? Wildlife Conservation Society meeting, Rapid City, South Dakota. pp. 32. (Power point presentation)
Derr, James. 2009. Bison Conservation Genetics and Disease presentation. Department of Veterinary Pathobiology and the Graduate Faculty of Genetics Texas AgriLIFE Research, Texas A & M University, College of Veterinary Medicine. (PDF, 2MB, 30 pages)
Derr. October 24, 2006. American Bison: The Ultimate Genetic Survivor. The Ecological Future of North American Bison, Denver, Colorado. pp. 38. (PDF, 1.9MB, 38 pages)
Douglas, K.C., et al. 2011. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of Bison bison and bison–cattle hybrids: Function and phylogeny. Mitochondrion 11: 166–175. (PDF, 500kB, 10 pages)
Dratch, Peter A. 2008. Management of bison conservation herds with historic cattle ancestry. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Inventory and Monitoring Initiative. American Bison Society Meeting on Bison Ecological Restoration March 23-25, 2011, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (PDF, 2.2MB, 15 pages)
Dratch, P. A., and P. J. P. Gogan. Bison Conservation Initiative: Bison Conservation Genetics Workshop: report and recommendations. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRPC/BRMD/NRR—2010/257. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. (PDF, 590kB, 50 pages) Online: http://www.nature.nps.gov/biology/wildlifemanagement/bison_report.cfm
Fallon. 2009. The ecological importance of bison in mixed-grass prairie ecosystems. (PDF, 12.1MB, 4 pages)
Fleischner. September 1994. Ecological Costs of Livestock Grazing in Western North America. Conservation Biology Volume 8 No. 3: 629-644. (PDF, 748kB, 17 pages)
Flores, Dan. 1991. Bison Ecology and Bison Diplomacy: The Southern Plains from 1800 to 1850. Journal of American History 78(2): 465-485. (PDF, 740kB, 22 pages)
Frank et al. July 1998. The Ecology of the Earth's Grazing Ecosystems. BioScience Volume 48 No. 7: 513-521. (PDF, 960kB, 14 pages)
Frankham, 2003. Genetics and conservation biology. C. R. Biologies 326: S22–S29. (PDF, 108kB, 8 pages)
Frankham, 2005. Genetics and extinction. Biological Conservation 126: 131–140. (PDF, 220kB, 10 pages)
Frankham, 2005. Stress and adaptation in conservation genetics. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18: 750–755. (PDF, 116kB, 17 pages)
Freese, Curtis H., Keith E. Aune, Delaney P. Boyd, James N. Derr, Steve C. Forrest, C. Cormack Gates, Peter J.P. Gogan, Shaun M. Grassel, Natalie D. Halbert, Kyran Kunkel, Kent H. Redford. 2007. Second chance for the plains bison. Biological Conservation 136(2): 175-184. (PDF, 1.1MB, 11 pages)
Fuller. April 2006. Yellowstone bison population counts (Image)
Gaggiotti. April 30, 2003. Genetic threats to population persistence. Ann. Zool. Fennici 40: 155-168. (PDF, 336kB, 14 pages)
Gardipee, Florence M. 2007. Development of Fecal DNA Sampling Methods to Assess Genetic Population Structure of Greater Yellowstone Bison. Master’s Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula, Montana. 63 pp. (PDF, 472kB, 63 pages)
Gardipee et al. June 2008. Strong substructure of Greater Yellowstone Area bison revealed by mitochondrial DNA from fecal samples. The University of Montana and National Park Service. pp. 28. (Powerpoint, 27.14MB)
Gates, C. Cormack, Chris Hugenholtz, Bill Ripple. 2011. From the Ground Up, Cascading ecological effects of bison. Faculty of Environmental Design University of Calgary, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society Oregon State University. American Bison Society Meeting on Bison Ecological Restoration March 23-25, 2011, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (PDF, 1.8MB, 20 pages)
Gates, C. Cormack, Brad Stelfox, Tyler Muhly, Tom Chowns, Robert J. Hudson. 2005. The Ecology of Bison Movements and Distribution In and Beyond Yellowstone National Park, A Critical Review With Implications for Winter Use and Transboundary Population Management. University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta. 329 pp. (PDF, 7.9MB, 329 pages)
Gates et al. Map of Potential Bison Habitat in Greater Yellowstone (Image)
Gates et al. Map of Yellowstone bison winter range and corridors (Image)
Geist, Darrell. 2012. The endangered circumstances and status of wild American bison in North America today. (PDF, 102kB, 5 pages)
Geist, Darrell. 2007. Status review of public lands grazing on the Gallatin National Forest Hebgen Lake and Gardiner Ranger Districts, A critique of land management decisions on National Forest lands and their impact on wild bison in Yellowstone. Unpublished report, Buffalo Field Campaign.
(PDF, 1.1MB, 7 pages)
Geist, Darrell, Gardiner and Hebgen Lake Public Lands Grazing (Excel, 36kB, 1 pages)
General Accounting Office (GAO), IBMP expenditures 2002-2007 (Image)
General Accounting Office (GAO), November 30, 1999. Wildlife Management Negotiations on a Long-Term Plan for Managing Yellowstone Bison Still Ongoing. Report to Congressional Requesters, United States General Accounting Office. pp. 51. (PDF, 376kB, 51 pages)
General Accounting Office (GAO), July 10, 1997. Wildlife Management Issues Concerning the Management of Bison and Elk Herds in Yellowstone National Park. Victor S. Rezendes Testimony Before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation and Recreation, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, U.S. Senate. United States General Accounting Office. pp. 23. (PDF, 356kB, 23 pages)
General Accounting Office (GAO), March 20, 2007. Yellowstone National Park Preliminary Observations on the Implementation of the Interagency Bison Management Plan. Robin M. Nazzaro Testimony Before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands, Committee on Natural Resources, U.S. House of Representatives. United States Government Accountability Office. pp. 14. (PDF, 836kB, 14 pages)
General Accounting Office (GAO), October 1992. Wildlife Management Many Issues Unresolved In Yellowstone Bison-Cattle Brucellosis Conflict. Report to the Honorable Alan Cranston, U.S. Senate. United States General Accounting Office. pp. 40. (PDF, 3.1MB, 40 pages)
General Accounting Office (GAO), March 2008. Yellowstone Bison Interagency Plan and Agencies' Management Need Improvement to Better Address Bison-Cattle Brucellosis Controversy. Report to Congressional Requesters, United States Government Accountability Office. pp. 52. (PDF, 3.2MB, 52 pages)
Geremia, Chris, P. J. White, Rick L. Wallen, Fred G. R. Watson, John J. Treanor, John Borkowski, Christopher S. Potter, Robert L. Crabtree. February 2011. Predicting Bison Migration out of Yellowstone National Park Using Bayesian Models. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16848. (PDF, 284kB, 9 pages)
Gogan, Peter J. P., Kevin M. Podruzny, Edward M. Olexa, Helga Ihsle PAC, Kevin L. Frey. 2005. Yellowstone Bison Fetal Development and Phenology of Parturition. Journal of Wildlife Management 69(4): 1716–1730. (PDF, 256kB, 15 pages)
Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center. 2006. Yellowstone National Park Ethnography Overview. 9 pp. (PDF, 92kB, 9 pages)
Green et al. October 1997. Spring Feeding on Ungulate Carcasses by Grizzly Bears in Yellowstone National Park. The Journal of Wildlife Management Volume 61 No. 4: 1040-1055. (PDF, 612kB, 17 pages)
Gross, John E. and Guiming Wang. January 2005. Effects of Population Control Strategies on Retention of Genetic Diversity in National Park Service Bison (Bison bison) Herds. Final Report Submitted to Yellowstone Research Group USGS-BRD, Department of Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717. (PDF, 796kB, 38 pages)
Gross, J. E., G. Wang, N. D. Halbert, P. A. Gogan, J. N. Derr, AND J. W. Templeton. March 2006. Effects of Population Control Strategies on Retention of Genetic Diversity in National Park Service Bison (Bison bison) Herds. Revised Final Report Submitted to Yellowstone Research Group USGS-BRD, Department of Biology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717. (PDF, 260kB, 31 pages)
Gunther and Haroldson. November 1997. Comments on the importance of bison to grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Yellowstone National Park and Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team. pp. 2. (PDF, 392kB, 2 pages)
Halbert and Derr. 2008. Patterns of genetic variation in US federal bison herds. Molecular Ecology 17: 4963–4977. (PDF, 1.1MB, 15 pages)
Halbert, Natalie D. 2003. The Utilization of Genetic Markers to Resolve Modern Management Issues in Historic Bison Populations - Impications for Species Conservation. Ph.D. Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 213 pp. (PDF, 336kB, 10 pages)
Halbert, Natalie D. and James N. Derr. 2007. A Comprehensive Evaluation of Cattle Introgression into US Federal Bison Herds. Journal of Heredity 98(1): 1–12. (PDF, 224kB, 12 pages)
Halber Natalie D., Peter J. P. Gogan, Philip W. Hedrick, Jacquelyn M. Wahl, and James N. Derr. 2012. Genetic Population Substructure in Bison at Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Heredity Advance Access published February 8, 2012. (PDF, 550kB, 11 pages)
Hardy, Amanda, Western Transportation Institute, Steve Willer and Elizabeth Roberts, American Wildlands Geographic Information Systems Lab. January 21, 2008. A Preliminary Assessment of Wildlife-Transportation Issues in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. (PDF, 588kB, 95 pages)
Haroldson et al. 1997. Yellowstone grizzly bear investigations: annual report of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team 1997. U.S. Geological Survey, Bozeman, Montana. (PDF, 736kB, 47 pages)
Hartnett et al. September 1996. Effects of Bison Grazing, Fire, and Topography on Floristic Diversity in Tallgrass Prairie. Journal of Range Management Volume 49 No. 5: 413-420. (PDF, 608kB, 9 pages)
Hedrick, Philip W., Bison Conservation Genetics. American Bison Society Meeting on Bison Ecological Restoration March 23-25, 2011, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (PDF, 918kB, 15 pages) Online: http://www.americanbisonsocietyonline.org/ABSMeetings/tabid/5413/Default.aspx
Hedrick, Phillip, 2011, Conservation Genetics and North American Bison (Bison bison). Journal of Heredity 100(4): 411–420. (PDF, 252kB, 10 pages)
Hedrick, Philip, W. 2010, Cattle ancestry in bison- explanations for higher mtDNA than autosomal ancestry. Molecular Ecology 19:3328–3335. (PDF, 224kB, 8 pages)
Hornaday, William T., 1889, The Extermination of the American Bison, From the Report of the National Museum, 1886-’87, pp: 369-548, Smithsonian Institution, United States National Museum, Washington, D.C. Republished 2006 by The Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, Project Gutenberg EBook ™, Fairbanks, Alaska. (PDF, 2MB, 175 pages) http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17748/17748-h/17748-h.htm
Hornaday. Map of American bison range (Image)
Intergovernmental-InterTribal Information Exchange Meeting for Yellowstone National Park. June 5, 2008. Transcript of the Proceedings Held at Mammoth Elementary School Yellowstone National Park, Mammoth, Wyoming. (PDF, 704kB, 191 pages)
Isenberg, Andrew C. 2000. The Destruction of the Bison: An Environmental History, 1750-1920. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York. 206 pp. (Introduction PDF, 128kB, 15 pages)
Isenberg, The Last Wild Buffalo Hunt to Be Held In America (Image)
IUCN. 2010. American Bison Status Survey and Conservation Guidelines 2010. Edited by C. Cormack Gates, Curtis H. Freese, Peter J.P. Gogan, and Mandy Kotzman. Gland Switzerland, IUCN. pp 154. (PDF, 3.6MB, 154 pages)
Jim Peaco, NPS. Bison wallowing Little America Flats (Image)
Joern. April 2005. Disturbance by Fire Frequency and Bison Grazing Modulate Grasshopper Assemblages in Tallgrass Prairie. Ecology Volume 86 No. 4: 861-873. (PDF, 3.4MB, 15 pages)
Jourdonnais, Craig, Montana Fish Wildlife & Parks. 2006. Winter Range Assessment for Bison in the Upper Gallatin River Drainage: DRAFT FWP population objective for bison wintering in the Taylor Fork/Porcupine areas. 11 pp. (PDF, 45.1MB, 11 pages)
Kantor. 2007. Ethnic Cleansing and America's Creation of National Parks. Public Land & Resources Law Review Volume 28. pp. 27. (PDF, 68kB, 27 pages)
Kilpatrick et al. 2009. Wildlife-livestock conflict: the risk of pathogen transmission from bison to cattle outside Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Applied Ecology. pp. 10.. (PDF, 3.8MB, 10 pages)
Kipp and Gardipee. September 13, 2007. Genetic population structure and differential male behavior among Greater Yellowstone Area bison breeding groups. (Powerpoint, 16.19MB)
Knapp, Alan K., John M. Blair, John M. Briggs, Scott L. Collins, David C. Hartnett, Loretta C. Johnson, E. Gene Towne. 1999. The Keystone Role of Bison in North American Tallgrass Prairie, Bison increase habitat heterogeneity and alter a broad array of plant, community, and ecosystem processes. BioScience 49(1): 39-50. (PDF, 1.2MB, 12 pages)
LaDuke. May/June 2000. buffalo nation. Sierra: 66-73. (PDF, 2.8MB, 8 pages)
Lancaster. Spring 2005. Restraining Yellowstone's Roaming Bison. Journal of Land Use. Volume 20(2): 427-454. (PDF, 108kB, 28 pages)
Lemke, Thomas O., Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. February 14, 2006. Bison Habitat Evaluation East of the Yellowstone River from Dome Mountain to YNP. (PDF, 127kB, 4 pages)
Lemke, Thomas O., Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks. July 7, 1997. Wildlife Habitat and Wildlife Use On and Near the Royal Teton Ranch. (PDF, 488kB, 5 pages)
Looking Horse. April 2008. To Save the Buffalo Nation. pp 2. (PDF, 58kB, 2 pages)
Luikart et al. April 23, 2009. Conserving Genetic Diversity in Yellowstone Bison, Draft Bison genetics research outline. pp. 6. (PDF, 344kB, 6 pages)
Lyman, R. Lee and Steve Wolverton. February 2002. The Late Prehistoric-Early Historic Game Sink in the Northwestern United States, Conservation Biology 16(1): 73-85 (PDF, 664kB, 13 pages)
Mattson and Merrill. August 2002. Extirpations of Grizzly Bears in the Contiguous United States, 1850–2000. Conservation Biology Volume 16 No. 4: 1123–1136. (PDF, 960kB, 15 pages)
Meagher, Margaret M., Mark L. Taper, and Christopher L. Jerde. 2002. Recent Changes in Population Distribution: The Pelican Bison and the Domino Effect. Anderson, R.J., and D. Harmon, eds. Yellowstone Lake: Hotbed of Chaos or Reservoir of Resilience? Proceedings of the 6th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. October 8–10, 2001, Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone National Park, Wyo., and Hancock, Mich.: Yellowstone Center for Resources and The George Wright Society. (PDF, 230kB, 16 pages)
Meagher, Margaret M. 1973. The Bison of Yellowstone National Park. Scientific Monograph Series Number One. National Park Service, Washington, D.C. 161 pp. (PDF, 4.2MB, 178 pages)
Meagher, M. and Margaret E. Meyer. 1994. On the Origin of Brucellosis in Bison of Yellowstone National Park: A Review. Conservation Biology 8(3): 645-653. (PDF, 988kB, 213 pages)
Meagher. June 16, 1986. Bison bison. Mammalian Species No. 266: 1-8. (PDF, 1.47MB, 9 pages)
Moskowitz and Romaniello. October 2002. Assessing the Full Cost of the Federal Grazing Program. Prepared for the Center for Biological Diversity in cooperation with American Lands, Western Watersheds Project, Oregon Natural Desert Association, Forest Guardians, Committee for Idaho’s High Desert and the National Public Lands Grazing Campaign. pp. 36. (PDF, 348kB, 36 pages)
Nabokov and Loendorf. 2000. American Indians and Yellowstone National Park. A Documentary Overview submitted to the National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Regional Office, Denver, Colorado. pp. 397. (PDF, 5.9MB, 397 pages)
Nie. Summer, 2008. The Use of Co-Management and Protected Land-Use Designations to Protect Tribal Cultural Resources and Reserved Treaty Rights on Federal Lands. Natural Resources Journal Volume 48. pp. 66. (PDF, 188kB, 66 pages)
O'Brien et al. June 2008. Non-invasive Fecal DNA Sampling Methods for Conservation Genetics Studies of Bison In Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks. (Power point presentation)
Olexa, Edward M. and Peter J.P. Gogan. 2007. Spatial Population Structure of Yellowstone Bison. The Journal of Wildlife Management 71(5): 1531-1538. (PDF, 440kB, 8 pages)
Ostler. Winter 1999. "They Regard Their Passing As Wakan": Interpreting Western Sioux Explanations for the Bison's Decline. The Western Historical Quarterly Volume 30 No. 4: 475-497. (PDF, 596kB, 26 pages)
Pennisi. November 26, 2004. Ice Ages May Explain Ancient Bison's Boom-Bust History. Science New Series Volume 306 No. 5701: 1454. (PDF, 1.2MB, 2 pages)
Plumb et al. 2009. Carrying capacity, migration, and dispersal in Yellowstone bison. Biological Conservation 142: 2377–2387. (PDF, 763kB, 11 pages)
Plumb, Glenn E. and Rosemary Sucec. 2006. A Bison Conservation History in the U.S. National Parks. JOW, Spring 2006, Vol. 45, No. 2. (PDF, 283kB, 7 pages)
Polley and Wallace. November 10, 1986. The Relationship of Plant Species Heterogeneity to Soil Variation in Buffalo Wallows. The Southwestern Naturalist Volume 31 No. 4: 493-501. (PDF, 256kB, 10 pages)
Polziehn, R. O., C. M. Strobeck, J. Sheraton, R. Beech. 1995. Bovine mtDNA discovered in North American bison populations. Conservation Biology 9(6): 1638-1643. (PDF, 216kB, 7 pages)
Popper and Popper. October 1999. The Buffalo Commons: Metaphor as Method. Geographical Review Volume 89 No. 4: 491-510. (PDF, 940kB, 21 pages)
Pringle, Thomas H. Widespread Mitochondrial Disease in North American Bison. Received 07 February 2011; Posted 07 February 2011. Nature Precedings. Online: http://precedings.nature.com/documents/5645/version/1
Rosas et al. 2008. Seed dispersal by Bison bison in a tallgrass prairie. Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 769-778. (PDF, 628kB, 10 pages)
Sanderson, Eric W., Kent H. Redford, Bill Weber, Keith Aune, Dick Baldes, Joel Berger, Dave Carter, Charles Curtin, James, Derr, Steve Dobrott, Eva Fearn, Craig Fleener, Steve Forrest,Craig Gerlach, C. Cormack Gates, John E. Gross, Peter Gogan, Shaun Grassel, Jodi A. Hilty, Marv Jensen, Kyran Kunkel, Duane Lammers, Rurik List, Karen Minkowski, Tom Olson, Chris Pague, Paul B. Robertson, and Bob Stephenson. 2008. The Ecological Future of the North American Bison: Conceiving Long-Term, Large-Scale Conservation of Wildlife. Conservation Biology 22(2): 252-266. (PDF, 956kB, 15 pages)
Sanderson et al. Map of American bison herds historical range (Image)
Schnabel, Robert. 2011. High Throughput Genomic Technologies for Bison. American Bison Society Meeting on Bison Ecological Restoration March 23-25, 2011, Tulsa Marriott Southern Hills, Tulsa, Oklahoma. (PDF, 1.5MB, 15 pages)
Schnabel, R. D., T. J. Ward, J. N. Derr. 2000. Validation of 15 microsatellites for parentage testing in North American bison, Bison bison and domestic cattle. Animal Genetics 31: 360-366. (PDF, 1.2MB, 7 pages)
Schullery, Paul and L. Whittlesey. 2006. Greater Yellowstone bison distribution and abundance in the early historical period. Pages 135–140 in A. Wondrak Biel, editors, Greater Yellowstone Public Lands: A Century of Discovery, Hard Lessons, and Bright Prospects. Proceedings of the 8th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. October 17–19, 2005, Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel, Yellowstone National Park. Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, Yellowstone Center for Resources. (PDF, 1.1MB, 43 pages)
Smith et al. 2000. Wolf-Bison Interactions in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Mammalogy 81(4): 1128–1135. (PDF, 104kB, 8 pages)
Smits. Autumn 1994. The Frontier Army and the Destruction of the Buffalo: 1865-1883. The Western Historical Quarterly Volume 25 No. 3: 312-338. (PDF, 924kB, 28 pages)
Soukup. October 23, 2006. The ecological future of North American bison. Mike Soukup, NPS associate director for Natural Resource Stewardship and Science, Wildlife Conservation Society meeting on the ecological future of North American bison Denver, Colorado. Park Science, National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. pp 3. (PDF, 280kB, 3 pages)
State of Montana, Record of Decision, Interagency Bison Management Plan. December 22, 2000. 8 pp. (PDF, 52kB, 8 pages)
Steinauer and Collins. May 2001. Feedback Loops in Ecological Hierarchies Following Urine Deposition in Tallgrass Prairie. Ecology Volume 82 No. 5: 1319-1329. (PDF, 508kB, 12 pages)
Taper, M.L., M. Meagher, C.L. Jerde. 2000. The Phenology of Space: Spatial Aspects of Bison Density Dependence in Yellowstone National Park. 113 pp.
(PDF, 2.6MB, 113 pages)
Trager et al. October 2004. Concurrent Effects of Fire Regime, Grazing and Bison Wallowing on Tallgrass Prairie Vegetation. American Midland Naturalist Volume 152 No. 2: 237-247. (PDF, 1.5MB, 12 pages)
Traill et al. 2010. Pragmatic population viability targets in a rapidly changing world. Biological Conservation 143: 28–34. (PDF, 276kB, 7 pages)
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gallatin National Forest. Gallatin National Forest Land and Resource Management Plan. 1987. (PDF, 12.6MB,308 pages)
U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 50 CFR Part 17, Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Yellowstone National Park Bison Herd as Endangered. Federal Register, Volume 72, No. 157, Wednesday, August 15, 2007, Proposed Rules. (PDF, 100kb, 6 pages)
U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. December 20, 2000. Record of Decision for Final Environmental Impact Statement and Bison Management Plan for the State of Montana and Yellowstone National Park. 75 pp. (PDF, 808kB, 75 pages)
U. S. Department of Interior, National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park News Release. October 15, 2007. Yellowstone’s Summer Bison Population Estimate Released. (PDF, 52kB, 1 pages)
U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. 2008. Wildlife Watching in the U.S. The Economic Impacts on National and State Economies in 2006. (PDF, 720kB, 12 pages)
U.S. National Park Service. 2008. Conservation Genetics of Yellowstone Bison. (PDF, 28kB, 2 pages)
Ward, T. J., L. C. Skow, D. S. Gallagher, R. D. Schnabel, C. A. Nall, C. E. Kolenda, S. K. Davis, J. F. Taylor and J. N. Derr. 2001. Differential introgression of uniparentally inherited markers in bison populations with hybrid ancestries. Animal Genetics 32: 89-91. (PDF, 52kB, 3 pages)
Ward, T. J., J. P. Bielawski, S. K. Davis, J. W. Templeton, J. N. Derr. 1999. Identification of domestic cattle hybrids in wild cattle and bison species: a general approach using mtDNA markers and the parametric bootstrap. Animal Conservation 2: 51-57. (PDF, 68kB, 7 pages)
Whicker and Detling. December 1988. Ecological Consequences of Prairie Dog Disturbances. BioScience Volume 38 No. 11: 778-785. (PDF, 1.1MB, 9 pages)
White, P.J., Rick L. Wallen, Chris Geremia, John J. Treanor, Douglas W. Blanton. 2011. Management of Yellowstone bison and brucellosis transmission risk - Implications for conservation and restoration. Biological Conservation 144: 1322-1334. (PDF, 582kB, 13 pages)
The Wildlife Society. April 11, 2000. Position Statement of the Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society on Wild Bison in Montana. (PDF, 40kB, 2 pages)
Wildlife Conservation Society, edited by Kent H. Redford and Eva Fearn. Working Paper No. 30 May 2007. Ecological Future of Bison in North America: A Report from a Mulit-Stakeholder, Transboundary Meeting. pp. 70. (PDF, 1.1MB, 70 pages)
Williams, Heather A. 2005. Spatial Precipitation Variability, Snowfall, and Historical Bison Occurrence in the Northwest United States. Master’s Thesis, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia. 84 pp. (PDF, 5.2MB, 84 pages)
Wood. 2004. Protecting the Wildlife Trust: A reinterpretation of Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law Journal Volume 34: 605-646. (PDF, 4.8MB, 42 pages)
Wood. Spring 2000. The Origin of Public Bison Herds in the United States. Wicazo Sa Review Volume 15 No. 1: 157-182. (PDF, 2.1MB, 27 pages)
Woodhouse et al, Drought in the Western Great Plains, 1845-56 Impacts and Implications (PDF, 516kB, 10 pages)
Yellowstone Center for Resources. 2010. Conserving Genetic Diversity in Yellowstone Bison: Effects of population fluctuations and variance in male reproductive success in age structured populations. Technical Report for the National Park Service, June 2010. Mammoth Hot Springs, Wyoming, YCR-2010-07. (PDF, 602kB, 36 pages)
You have sought out our buffalo conservation page.
Thank you for your interest in a healthy future for wild buffalo.
Will you now click here to take action to help defend the last wild herds?
Fair Use Notice:
Reproduction of the bison research on this site is for nonprofit educational purposes only, is posted only for the purposes of scholarly research and investigation of the status of Bison bison, and should not be used for further distribution.
"Today, the plains bison is for all practical purposes ecologically extinct within its original range." ~ C.H. Freese, Second chance for the plains bison
"Current management of private, state, and Federal bison herds is leading towards domestication of bison that threatens their wild character and limits important natural selection processes." ~ Position Statement of the Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society on Wild Bison in Montana
"Yellowstone National Park is the only place in the lower 48 States where bison have existed in a wild state since prehistoric times. Bison occupied the region encompassing the park from shortly after recession of the last glaciers 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, until the 19th century when they came close to extirpation." ~ C. Cormack Gates, The Ecology of Bison Movements and Distribution in and beyond Yellowstone National Park
"The Bison of Yellowstone National Park are unique among bison herds in the United States, being descendants, in part, of the only continuously wild herd in this country." ~ Margaret Mary Meagher, The Bison of Yellowstone National Park
Aderhold, Mike (--). Montana's Threatened and Endangered Species: A Status Report. Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks.
Allen, Arthur C. (1967). The North American Bison, Juggernaut of the Plains. National Park Service & University of Michigan.
Andrews, Edwin J., B. Taylor Bennett, J. Derrell Clark, Katherine A. Houpt, Peter J. Pascoe, Gordon W. Robinson, and John R. Boyce (1993). 1993 Report of the AVMA Pannel on Euthanasia. JAVMA 202(2)(January 15, 1993).
Arthur, George W. (--). The Emigrant Bison Drives of Paradise Valley, Montana. Montana State University, Dept. of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Welfare; Missoula, MT.
Barrett, Gabriela (1994). "Being As It Used To Be Long Ago, May I Walk": Stories on Relationship to Animals, to Self. Professional Paper, Master of Science. University of Montana.
Bath, Alistair J. (1991) Public Attitudes in Wyoming, Montana and Idaho Toward Wolf Retsoration in Yellowstone National Park. In Trans. of the 56th North American Wildlife & Natural Resource Conference, pp. 91-95.
Baumeister, T.R. (1998) "The Rocky Mountain Front: Home to Bison. A Case Study on the Coevolution of Bison and Fescue Prairie." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 351-54. Bozeman, MT.
Beal, Merrill D. (1950) Bison in Yellowstone National Park. Student Paper. Utah State Agricultural College, Zool. 106, Zoological Literature (May 23, 1950).
Beede, A. McG. (1921). In the Days of the Buffalo (with note by Geo. Bird Grinnell). Forest and Stream, June 1921. HISTORIC
Belovsky, G.E. (1986). Optimal foraging and community Structure: Implications for a guild of generalist grassland herbivores. Oecologia (Berlin, 1986) 70: 35-52.
Berger, Joel and Steven L. Cain (1999). Reproductive Synchrony in Brucellosis-Exposed Bison in the Southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and in Nininfected Populations. Conservation Biology 13(2): 357-366 (April 1999).
Berger, Joel and Carol Cunningham (1988). Size-Related Effects on Search Times in North American Grassland Female Ungulates. Ecology 69(1):177-183.
Berger, Joel and Carol Cunningham (1994). Multiple Bottlenecks, Allopatric Lineages and Badlands Bison (Bos bison) Consequences of Lineage Mixing. Biological Conservation 71(1995): 13-23.
Berger, J. and C. Cunningham (1994). Bison Mating and Conservation in Small Populations (Table of contents only). NY: Columbia University Press.
Bhambhani, R. and J. Kuspira (1969). The Somatic Karyotypes of American Bison and Domestic Cattle. Canadian Journal of Genetic Cytology 11: 243-249.
Bjornlie, D.D. (2000). "Ecological Effects of Winter Road Grooming on Bison in Yellowstone National Park." M.S. Thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman.
Bjornlie, D.D. and R. A. Garrott (1998). "The Effects of Groomed Roads in the Behavior and Distribution of Bison (Bison, bison) in Yellowstone National Park." Annual Report. Montana State University, Bozeman.
Bork, A.M., C.M. Strobeck, F.C. Yeh, R.J. Hudson and R.K. Slamon (1991). Genetic relationship of wood and plains bison based on restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69: 43-48.
Brister, Daniel (2014). Border Patrol. Natural History (October 2014) 122(8): 16-21.
Brister, Daniel (2013). In the Presence of Buffalo: Working to Stop the Yellowstone Slaughter. WestWinds Press, Portland, OR.
Brister, Daniel (2000). Negligent Endangerment. University of Montana, EVST, Missoula, MT. Camas (Winter/Spring 2000) 3(4): 18-21, 39-40.
Cabon-Raczynska, K., M. Krasinska and Z. Krasinski (1983). Behavior and Daily Activity of European Bison in Winter. Acta Theriologica 18:273-299.
Cannon, Kenneth P. (1997a). The Analysis of a Late Holocene Bison Skull from Fawn Creek, Lemhi County, Idaho, and Its Implications for Understanding the History and Ecology of Bison in the Intermountain West. National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska (July 1997).
Cannon, Kenneth P. (1997b). A Review of Prehistoric Faunal Remains from Various Contexts in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Cannon, Kenneth P. (1999a). The Application of Archeology to Bison Management in the Greater Yellowstone Area (23 pp., biblio. included). National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center and University of Nebraska, Dept. of Geography; Lincoln, Nebraska (April 1999). HISTORIC - GENETIC - ARCHEOLOGY
Cannon, Kenneth P. (1999b). Prehistoric Bison Ecology and Its Application to Modern Bison Management in the Greater Yellowstone Area. National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska (Oct. 1999).
Cannon, Kenneth P. (1999c). (Review Draft) Prehistoric Bison in Jackson Hole: New Evidence from the Goetz Site (48TE455). National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska (Dec. 1999).
Cannon, Kenneth P. (2000). The Application of Prehistoric Bison Studies to Modern Bison Management. National Park Service, Midwest Archeological Center, Lincoln, Nebraska.
Cahalane, Victor H. (1944). Restoration of Wild Bison. Transactions of the Ninth North American Wildlife Conference, American Wildlife Institute (1944), pp.135-143.
Cahalane, Victor H. (1931). Buffalo... Wild or Tame? American Forests (October, 1944). The American Forestry Association, Washington, DC.
Carbyn, L.N., and T. Trottier (1987). Responses of Bison on Their Calving Grounds to Predation by Wolves in Wood Buffalo National Park. Canadian Journal of Zoology 65:2072-2078.
Callenbach, Ernest (1995). Rangelands are Waiting for Bison. Defenders (winter 1995/96). From Bring Back th Buffalo! Island Press, Covelo, CA.
Caughley, Graeme (1979). What Is This Thing Called Carrying Capacity? Source omitted, pp. 2-8.
Chambers, K.E. (1998). "Using Genetic Data in the Management of Bison Herds." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 151-57. Bozeman, MT.
Cheville, Norman F., Mary Meagher, Thomas J. Roffe, Fred Enright and Mark S. Boyce (1997). "Future Brucellosis Research Needs for the Greater Yellowstone Area." In Brucellosis, Bison, Elk, and Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Defining the Problem, Exploring Solutions, edited by E.T. Thorne, M.S. Boyce. P. Nicoletti, and J.T. Kreeger. Article 13:133-44.
Choquette, L.P.E., E. Broughton, A.A. Currier, J.G. Cousinaeu and N.S. Novakowski (1972). Parasites and Disease of Bison in Canada. III. Anthrax Outbreaks in the Last Decade in Northern Canada and Control Measures. The Canadian Field-Naturalist 86:127-132.
Christianson, Albert (1991). The Conrad Buffalo Ranch. Excerpts, pp. 8-24.
Christman, Gene M. (--- post 1970). The Mountain Bison. Source Omitted. Author with Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, UC Berkeley.
Clark, Wendy E. (2000). Bison Survey for Yellowstone National Park, 1/30/00. Memorandum. National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park, Wy.
Cook, Walter E. (1999). Brucellosis in Elk: Studies of Epizootiology and Control. Dissertation. University of Wyoming, Dept. of Zoology and Physiology, Laramie, Wy.
Coppock, D.L., J.E. Ellis, J.K. Detling and M.I. Dyer. (1983) Plant-Herbivore Interactions in a North American Mixed-Grass Prairie. Oecologia (Berlin) 56:10-15.
Craighead, John J., Joel R. Varney and Frank C. Craighead, Jr. (1974). A population Analysis of the Yellowstone Grizzly Bears. Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station and Montana Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit, University of Montana, Missoula, MT.
Davis, Donald S. (1990a). Brucellosis in Wildlife. In Animal Brucellosis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.; pp.321-334.
Davis, Donald S. (1990b). Recent Advances on Brucellosis in Wildlife Populations. In Advances in Brucellosis Research, Second International Symposia, L.G. Adams, editor. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, TX; pp. 373-385.
Davis, Donald S. (1993). Summary of Bison/Brucellosis Research Conducted at Texas A&M University 1985-1993. Source Omitted. Texas A&M University, College Station, TX; pp. 347-361.
Davis, Donald S., William J. Boeer, J. Patrick Mims, F.C. Heck and L.G. Adams (1979). Brucella Abortus in Coyotes. I. Serologic and Bacteriologic Survey in Eastern Texas. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 15(3): 367-372.
Davis, Donald S., Joe W. Templeton, Thomas A. Ficht, John D. Williams, John D. Kopec, and L. Garry Adams (1990). Brucella Abortus in Captive Bison. I. Serology, Bacteriology, Pathogenesis, and Transmission to Cattle. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 26(3): 360-371.
Davis, Donald S., Joe W. Templeton, Thomas A. Ficht, Jan D. Huber, R. Dale Angus, and L. Garry Adams (1991). Brucella Abortus in Bison. II. Evaluation of Strain 19 Vaccination of Pregnant Cows. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 27(2): 258-264.
DelGiudice, Glenn D., Francis J. Singer, Ulysses S. Seal and Gillian Bowser (1994). Physiological Responses of Yellowstone Bison to Winter Nutrition Deprivation. Journal of Wildlife Management 58(1):24-34.
DeYoung, Henry G. (?) The Bison Is Beleaguered Again. Source Omitted, pp. 48-55.
Diem, Kenneth L. (1950). A Study of the Hayden Valley Bison Herd and Recommendations for its Management. Research Proposal. USDI, NPS, Yellowstone National Park, WY.
Dobson, Andrew (1993). Brucellosis in Yellowstone’s Bison Population. I. Observed Epidemiology and Transmission Potential. Report to National Park Service. Princeton University, Princeton, NJ.
Dobson, Andrew and Mary Meagher (1996). The Population Dynamics of Brucellosis in the Yellowstone National Park. Ecology, 77(4): 1026-1036.
Donaldson, Thomas (1885). ‘Review of the Buffalo and Buffalo Country’ and ‘The Extinction of the Buffalo in the United States’. In The George Caitlin Indian Gallery in the U.S. National Museum (Smithsonian Institution) with Memoir and Statistics, Part V, pp. 294-300 and Maps.
Duffield, John, David Patterson and Christopher J. Neher (2000). Final Report: Yellowstone National Park Visitor Survey, Summer 1999. Report to National Park Service. Bioeconomics, Inc., Missoula, MT.
Duffield, John, and Christopher J. Neher (2000). Final Report: Winter 1998-99 Visitor Survey, Yellowstone N.P., Grand Teton N.P., and the Greater Yellowstone Area. Report to National Park Service. Bioeconomics, Inc., Missoula, MT.
Duffield, John, David Patterson and Christopher J. Neher (2000). Final Report: National Telephone Survey of Attitudes Toward Management of Yellowstone National Park. Report to National Park Service. Bioeconomics, Inc., Missoula, MT.
Eberhardt, L.L. (1987). Population Projections From Simple Models. Journal of Applied Ecology, 24:103-118.
Eberhardt, L.L. and R.R. Knight (1996). How Many Grizzlies in Yellowstone? Journal of Wildlife Management, 60(2):416-421.
Elberg, S.S., ed (---). A Guide to the Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Human Brucellosis (incomplete copy). World Health Organization (VPH/81.31, Rev.1).
Elzer, Philip H., Matthew D. Edmonds, Sue D. Hagius, Joel V. Walker, Michael J. Gilsdorf and Donald S. Davis (1998). Safety of Brucella Abortus Strain RB51 in Bison. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 34(4):825-829.
Enright, F.M. and P. Nicoletti (1997). "Vaccination Against Brucellosis." In Brucellosis, Bison, Elk, and Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Defining the Problem, Exploring Solutions, edited by E. Tom Thorne, M.S. Boyce, P. Nicoletti, T.J. Kreeger, 86-95. Cheyenne, WY: Wyoming Game and Fish Department.
Ferrari, M.J. (1999). "An Assessment of the Risk of Inter-Specific Transmission of Brucella abortus from Bison to Elk on the Madison-Firehole Winter Range." M.S. Thesis, Montana State University, Bozeman.
Finley, Michael V. (1997). "Dear Friend of Yellowstone". Form letter concerning Yellowstone bison, with "Bison Information Sheet" attached. USDI, NPS, N1427 (YELL), YNP Superintendent (July 7, 1997).
Fisher, J.W., and T. Roll (1998). "Ecological Relationships Between Bison and Native Americans During Late Prehistory and the Early Historic Period." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management, 283-302. June 4-7, 1997,Montana, Bozeman.
Flores, Dan (1991) Bison Ecology and Bison Diplomacy: The Southern Plains from 1800 to 1850. The Journal of American History, (September, 1991) 465-485.
Fowler, Charles W. (1981). Density Dependence as Related to Life History Strategy. Ecology, 62(3): 602-610.
Frank, Douglas A. and Samuel McNaughton (1993). Evidence for the Promotion of Aboveground Grassland Production by Native Large Herbivores in Yellowstone National Park. Oecologia, 96: 157-161.
Franklin, Ian Robert (1980) Evolutionary Change in Small Populations. In Conservation Biology: An Evolutionary-Ecological Perspective, edited by M. Soule and B. Wilcox, 135-149. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Fryxell, F.M. (1926). New High Altitude Limit for the American Bison. Journal of Mammology, 7:102-109. - HISTORIC RANGE -
Fryxell, F.M. (1928?) The Former Range of Bison in the Rocky Mountains. Journal of Mammology, 9: 129-139 - HISTORIC RANGE -
Fuller, W.A. (1959). The Horns and Teeth as Indicators of Age in Bison. Journal of Wildlife Management, 23(3): 342-344.
GAO (1999). Wildife Management: Negotiations on a Long-Term Plan for Managing Yellowstone Bison Still Ongoing. Report to Congressional Requesters; GAO/RCED-00-7. United States General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Garrott, Robert A. (1995). Effective Management of Free-Ranging Ungulate Populations Using Contraception. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 23(3):445-452.
Gebczynska, Zofia, Jan Kowalczyk, Malgorzata Krasinska and Aleksandra Ziolecka (1974). A Comparison of the Digestibility of Nutrients by European Bison and Cattle. Acta Theriologica, (Sept. 1974) 19: 283-289.
Geist, Valerius (1992). Endangered Species and the Law. Nature, (May 28, 1992) 357: 274-276.
Gibson, David J. (1989). Effects of Animal Disturbance on Tallgrass Prairie Vegetation. American Midland Naturalist, 121: 144-154.
Gilbert, Paul F., Olof C. Wallmo, and R. Bruce Gill (1970). Effect of Snow Depth on Mule Deer in Middle Park, Colorado. Journal of Wildlife Management, 34(1): 15-23.
Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee (1991). A Framework for the Coordination of National Parks and National Forests in the Greater Yellowstone Area. National Park Service and Forest Service (GYCC).
Greater Yellowstone Coordinating Committee (1999). Winter Visitor Use Management: Executive Summary. National Park Service and Forest Service (GYCC).
Greater Yellowstone Interagency Brucellosis Committee (1997). Greater Yellowstone Interagency Brucellosis Committee: "White Paper". GYIBC (May 1997).
Greater Yellowstone Interagency Brucellosis Technical Subcommittee (1997). Interspecies Transmission of Brucella abortus. Informational Paper (September 17, 1997).
Green, Gerald I., David J. Mattson, and James M. Peek (1997). Spring Feeding on Ungulate Carcasses by Grizzly Bears in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Wildlife Management, 61(4): 1040-1055.
Griffith, Duane (1997). Comparative Analysis: Measuring Beef Production and Financial Performance with SPA. Unpublished Document. Montana State University (Updated 3/6/97). Faxed to APHIS (October 1999) from Montana State University, Agricultural Economics.
Grimm, Rudolf L. (1939). Northern Yellowstone Winter Range Studies. Journal of Wildlife Management, 3(4): 295-306.
Grinnell, George Bird (1892). The Last of the Buffalo. Scribner's Magazine, 12(3) (September): 267-286.
Gunther, Kerry A. (1994). Bear Management in Yellowstone National Park, 1960-93. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Management, 9(1):549-560.
Gunther, Kerry A. and Roy A. Renkin (1990). Grizzly Bear Predation on Elk Calves and Other Fauna of Yellowstone National Park. Int. Conf. Bear Res. and Management, 8: 329-334
Gunther, Kerry A. and Mark Haroldson (1997). Comments on the Importance of Bison to Grizzly Bears in the Yellowstone Ecosystem. Bear Management Office, Yellowstone National Park, and Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (November 1997).
Guthrie, R.D. (1980). Bison and Man in North America. Canadian Journal of Anthropology, 1: 55-73.
Haigh, J.C. and C.C. Gates (1995). Capture of Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae) Using Carfentanil-Based Mixtures. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 31(1): 37-42.
Haines, Francis (1970). Preservation of the Species. In The Buffalo, University of Oklahoma Press (1970, 1995) pp. 217-224.
Haines, Francis D. (1940). The Western Limits of the Buffalo Range. Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 31: 389-398.
Hanson, Jeffery R. (1984). Bison Ecology in the Northern Plains and a Reconstruction of Bison Patterns for the North Dakota Region. Plains Anthropologist, 29(104): 93-113.
Hitchcock, A.E. (1902). Letter from the Secretary of the Interior Transmitting to the Senate Facts in Relation to the Preservation of the American Bison in the United States and Canada. Document #445, United States Senate; 43 pp.
Hodson, R. and J. Karpowitz (1998). Utah’s Henry Mountains Bison Herd: Management by Hunting." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 229-32. June 4-7, 1997, Bozeman, MT.
Hornaday, William T. (1910). The Bison Comes Back to His Own. Collier's Outdoor America, 44(16): 20-21.
Hornaday, William T. (1914) Order of Hoofed Animals. Source Omitted, Chapter 8, pp. 3-14.
Howe, Rodney (1998). Mitigation Strategies for Managing Brucellosis in the Jackson Bison Herd. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 11-22. June 4-7, 1997, Bozeman, MT.
Huber, Jan D. and Paul Nicoletti (1986). Comparison of the results of card, Rivanol, complement-fixation, and milk ring tests with the isolation rate of Brucella abortus from cattle. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 47(7): 1529-1531.
Hudson, R.J. (----). Body Size, Energetics, and Adaptive Radiation. In Bioenergetics of Wild Herbivores, Chapter 1, pp.1-24.
InterTribal Bison Cooperative (1997). Buffalo Tracks: Special Yellowstone Edition. Buffalo Tracks (Winter 1997); ITBC, Rapid City, SD.
Jellison, William L., Charles W. Fishel, and E.L. Cheatum (1953). Brucellosis in a Moose, Alces Americanus. Journal of Wildlife Management, 17(2): 217-218.
Jennings, Jim (1974). Qua Quei or How the Buffalo Were Saved. Mission Valley News, St. Ignatius, Mt.
Keiter, Robert B. (1997). Greater Yellowstone's Bison: Unraveling of an Early American Wildlife Conservation Achievement. Journal of Wildlife Management, 61(1):1-11.
Keiter, Robert B. and Peter H. Froelicher (1997). Bison, Brucellosis and Law in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (1993). Land and Water Law Review, 28(1):1-75.
King, N.B. (1957). The Survival of Brucella Abortus (U.S.D.A. Strain 2308) in Manure. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA) 131(8): 349-352.
Kirkpatrick, J.F., J.C. McCarthy, D.F. Gudermuth, S.E. Shideler, and B.L. Lasley (1996). An Assessment of the Reproductive Biology of Yellowstone Bison (Bison, bison) subpopulations using noncapture methods. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74: 8-14.
Kittams, Walter H. (1949). Preliminary Report on Hayden Valley Bison Range. Memorandum for the Superintendent (July 11, 1949). USDI, NPS, Yellowstone National Park, WY.
Knight, Richard R. and L.L. Eberhardt (1985). Population Dynamics of Yellowstone Grizzly Bears. Ecology 66(2): 323-334.
Kobrynczuk, Franciszek (1985). The Influence of Inbreeding on the Shape and Size of the Skeleton of the European Bison. Acta Theoriologica, 30(25):379-422.
Kurz, G.L. (1998). "1997-98 Hayden Valley Bison Monitoring Progress Report." National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park, n.p.
Kurz, G.L. (1999). "Review of the Viability of Brucella abortus." National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park, n.p.
Kurz, G.L., E. Reinertson, D. Reinhart, and K. Legg (1999). "1998-99 Winter Bison Monitoring Progress Report." National Park Service, Yellowstone National Park, n.p.
Kuzdas, C.D. and E.V. Morse (1953). The Survival of Brucella Abortus, USDA Strain 2308, Under Controlled Conditions in Nature. Paper no. N.S. 129. Wisconsin Agricultural Experiment Station.
LaDuke, Winona (1998). Pte Oyate: Buffalo Nations, Buffalo Peoples. Honor the Earth, St. Paul, Mn.
Larter, Nicholas C. and C. Cormak Gates. (1990). Home Ranges of Wood Bison in an Expanding Population. Soil Conservation Service, Billings Mt. Journal of Mammology, 71(4): 604-607.
Larson, Floyd (1940). The Role of Bison in Maintaining the Short Grass Plains. Ecology, 21(2):113-121.
Lee, Thomas E. Jr., John W. Bickham, and M. Douglas Scott (1994). Mitochondrial DNA and Allozyme Analysis of North American Pronghorn Populations. Journal of Wildlife Management, 58(2): 307-318.
LeVier, K., R.W. Phillips, V.K. Grippe, R.M. Roop II, and G.C. Walker (2000) Similar Requirements of a Plant Symbiont and a Mammalian Pathogen for Prolonged Intracellular Survival. Science, 287: 248.
Lindstrom, Robert F. (1997). The Yellowstone Brucellosis Project: A Proposal for Molecular Analysis of Brucella Abortus in Wild Bison. Yellowstone Center for Resources. Mammoth, Wy.
Lott, D.F. (1987). "Should Public Herds Be Trading Bison to Maintain Diversity in the Gene Pool and/or Prevent Inbreeding Depression?" In Proceedings of the North American Bison Workshop, 59-60. September 9-10, 1987.
Mack, John (1998). Bison Survey for Yellowstone National Park, 10/22/98. Memorandum to Intersted Parties, USDI, NPS, N1427 (YELL), (October 26, 1998).
Macnab, John (1985). Carrying Capacity and Related Slippery Shibboleths. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 13: 403-410.
Manning, Richard (1995). The Buffalo Is Coming Back. Defenders, (Winter 1995/96)
Matthews, Mark (1998). Don’t Fence Me In: Are Bison Becoming ‘Just Another Cow with a Hump’? High Country News, 30(11): 1, 8-12.
Mattson, David J. (1997). Use of Ungulates by Yellowstone Grizzly Bears, Ursus arctos. Biological Conservation , 81: 161-177.
Mattson, David J., Bonnie M. Blanchard, and Richard R. Knight (1991). Food Habits of Yellowstone Grizzly Bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69:1619-1629.
Mattson, David J., Bonnie M. Blanchard, and Richard R. Knight (1992). Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Mortality, Human Habituation, and Whitebark Pine Seed Crops. Journal of Wildlife Management, 56(3):432-442.
Mattson, David J., Colin M. Gillin, Scott A. Benson, and Richard R. Knight (1991). Bear Feeding Activity at Alpine Insect Aggregation Sites in the Yellowstone Ecosystem. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69:2430-2435. (page missing)
Mattson, David J. and Jeff Henry (1987). (Draft) Spring Grizzly Bear Use of Ungulate Carcasses in the Firehole River Drainage: Second Year Progress Report. Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (January 1987).
Mattson, David J., and Matthew M. Reid (1991) Conservation of the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear. Conservation Biology, (1991?) source omitted.
Mayr, B., E. Tesarik, H. Auer and H. Burger (1987). Nucleolus-Organizer Regions and Heterochromatin in Three Species of Bovidae. Genetica, 75: 207-212.
McClenaghan, Leroy R., Jr., Joel Berger, and Harold Truesdale (1990). Founding Lineages and Genic Variability in Plains Bison (Bison, bison) from Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Conservation Biology, 4(3): 285-289.
McCorquodale, Scott M. and Ronald F. DiGiacomo (1985). The Role of Wild North American Ungulates in the Epidemiology of Bovine Brucellosis: A Review. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 21(4): 351-357.
McNaught, David A. (1987). Wolves in Yellowstone? - Park Visitors Respond. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 15: 518-521.
Meagher, Mary (1970). The Bison of Yellowstone National Park, Past and Present. Excerpts only. Source omitted.
Meagher, Mary (1971). Snow as a Factor Influencing Bison Distribution and Numbers in Pelican Valley. Yellowstone National Park, National Park Service.
Meagher, Mary (1971). Winter Weather as a Population Regulating Influence on Free-Ranging Bison in Yellowstone National Park. Presented at American Association for the Advancement of Science Symposium on Research in National Parks (December 28, 1971).
Meagher, Mary (1972). Brucellosis and Yellowstone Bison. Information Paper No. 17. Yellowstone National Park, National Park Service (April 5, 1972).
Meagher, Mary (1973a). The Bison of Yellowstone National Park. Scientific Monograph Series, No.1; National Park Service, Washington, DC.
Meagher, Mary (1973b). Brucellosis in Yellowstone Bison -- The Controversy. Information Paper No. 14 (Rev.); Yellowstone National Park, National Park Service (February 1973).
Meagher, Mary (1974a). Yellowstone Bison. Information Paper No. 1 (rev.). Yellowstone National Park, National Park Service (January 1974).
Meagher, Mary (1974b). Yellowstone’s Bison, A Unique Wild Heritage. National Parks & Conservation Magazine, (May 1974): 9-14.
Meagher, Mary (1975). Yellowstone Bison. Information Paper No. 1 (rev.). Yellowstone National Park, National Park Service (January 1975)
Meagher, Mary (1978). Bison. In Big Game of North America. Stackpole Books; pp 123-133. - BISON ECOLOGY - BISON MANAGEMENT
Meagher, Mary (1986a). Bison bison. Mammalian Species, 266: 1-8.
Meagher, Mary (1986b). Yellowstone Bison. Information Paper No. 1 (rev.). Yellowstone National Park, National Park Service (March 1986).
Meagher, Mary (1989a). Evaluation of Boundary Control for Bison of Yellowstone National Park. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 17: 15-19.
Meagher, Mary (1989b). Range Expansion by Bison of Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Mammology, 70(3): 670-675.
Meagher, Mary (1993). (Draft) Winter Recreation-Induced Changes In Bison Numbers and Distribution in Yellowstone National Park. Draft Monograph (March 1993).
Meagher, M. (1998). "Recent Changes In Yellowstone Bison Numbers And Distribution." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 107-12. June 4-7, 1999, Bozeman, MT.
Meagher, M., S. Cain, T. Toman J. Kropp and D. Bosman (1994). " Bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Status, Distribution and Management." In National Brucellosis Symposium Proceedings, 96-105. September 26-28, 1994, Jackson, WY.
Meagher, Mary and J.G. Dennis (1991?). Bison and Brucellosis Management at Yellowstone National Park. Highlights, date omitted (faxed from National Park Service 6/4/91).
Meyer, Margaret E. (1992). Brucella abortus in the Yellowstone National Park Bison Herd. Report to Yellowstone National Park, USDI. School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis.
Meyer, Margaret E. and Mary Meagher (1995). Brucellosis in Free-Ranging Bison (Bison, bison ) in Yellowstone, Grand Teton, and Wood Buffalo National Parks: A Review. School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis & National Biological Service, YNP. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 31(4): 579-598.
Mills, L. Scott, and Fred W. Allendorf (1996). The One-Migrant-per-Generation Rule in Conservation and Management. Conservation Biology, 10(6): 1509-1518.
Montana Wolf Management Advisory Council (2000). Draft Transcript of Meeting (June 14, 2000).
Moodie, D.W. and Arthur J. Ray (1975). Buffalo Migrations in the Canadian Plains. Plains Anthropology, 21: 45-52.
Moore, Cheryl Garby and Paul R. Schnurrenberger (1981). A Review of Naturally Occurring Brucella abortus Infections in Wild Mammals. JAVMA, 179(11): 1105-1112.
Nabokov, P. and L. Loendorf (1999). "Restoring a Presence: A Documentary Overview of Native Americans and Yellowstone National Park." Draft manuscript in possession of Yellowstone National Park.
National Bison Range (1998). 1998 List of Public Bison Herds in North America. With geneological chart. NBR, Moiese, Mt.
National Bison Range (---). Time Line of the American Bison. NBR, Moiese, Mt.
National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior (1999). "The Application of Conservation Genetics to the Long-Term Management of Bison in Five National Parks." Research proposal.
National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior (2000). "Biological Assessment for the Interagency Bison Management Plan for the State of Montana and Yellowstone National Park." Prepared with assistance from Greystone Environmental Consultants, Inc. and BRW, Inc. On file at Yellowstone National Park.
National Research Council (1998). Brucellosis in the Greater Yellowstone Area. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press: Washington, DC.
Noss, Reed F., Edward T, LaRoe III and J. Michael Scott (~1994?). Endangered Ecosystems of the United States: A Preliminary Assessment of Loss and Degradation. Biological Resources, USGS (accessed February 14, 2000).
Olech, Wanda (1989). The Participation of Ancestral Genes in the Existing Population of European Bison. Acta Theoriologica, 34(29): 397-407.
Olsen, S.C., N.F. Cheville, R.A. Kunkle, M.V. Palmer, and A.E. Jenson (1997). Bacterial Survival, Lymph Node Pathology and Serological Responses of Bison (Bison bison ) Vaccinated with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 or Strain 19. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 33(1): 146-151.
Olsen, Steven C., Allen E. Jenson, Mitchell V. Palmer, and Mark G. Stevens (1998). Evaluation of Serologic Responses, Lymphocyte Proliferation Responses, and Clearance from Lymphatic Organs After Vaccination of Bison with Brucella abortus Strain RB51. American Journal of Veterinary Research (AJVR), 59(4): 410-415.
Olsen, Steven C., J.C. Rhyan, Thomas Gidlewski, M.V. Palmer, and A.H. Jones (1999). Biosafety and Antibody Responses of Adult Bison Bulls After Vaccination with Brucella abortus Strain RB51. American Journal of Veterinary Research (AJVR), 60: 905-908.
Pac, H.I. and K. Frey (1991). Some Population Characteristics of the Northern Yellowstone Bison Herd During the Winter of 1988-89. Bozeman, MT: Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks.
Palmer, Mitchell V., Steven C. Olsen, Michael J. Gilsdorf, Lee M. Philo, Patrick R. Clarke, and Norman F. Cheville (1996). Abortion and Placentitis in Pregnant Bison (Bison, bison) Induced by the Vaccine Candidate, Brucella abortus Strain RB51. AJVR, 57(11): 1604-1607.
Peacock, Doug (1997). The Yellowstone Massacre. Audubon, (May-June 1997): 41-49, 102-103, 106-110.
Peterson, Markus J., William E. Grant, and Donald S. Davis (1991). Bison-Brucellosis Management: Simulation of Alternative Strategies. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 55(2): 205-213.
Plumb, G.E. and J.L. Dodd (1993). "Foraging Ecology of Bison and Cattle on Mixed Prairie: Implications for Natural Area Management." Ecological Applications 3(4): 631-43.
Polley, H. Wayne and Scott L. Collins (1984). Relationships of Vegetation and Environment in Buffalo Wallows. The American Midland Naturalist, 112(1): 178-186.
Polziehn, Renee O., Robin Beech, Jane Sheraton, and Curtis Strobeck (1996). Genetic Relationships Among North American Bison Populations. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74: 738-749.
Polzhiehn, R.O., C. Strobeck, J. Sheraton, and R. Beech (1995). Bovine mtDNA Discovered in North American Bison Populations. Conservation Biology 9:6; 1638-43.
Power, Thomas M. (1991). Ecosystem Preservation and the Economy in the Greater Yellowstone Area. Conservation Biology, 5(3): 395-404.
Pritchard, Geoffrey T. and Charles T. Robbins (1990). Digestive and Metabolic Efficiencies of Grizzly and Black Bears. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 68: 1645-1651.
Proctor, Jonathan (2000). Comments on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and Proposed Land and Resource Management Plans for the Northern Great Plains National Grasslands. Predator Conservation Alliance 1200.
Purdy, Charles W., Ralph C. Porter, and Shirley J. Ford (1978). Equine Rhinopneumonitis Vaccine: Immunogenicity and Safety in Foals. AJVR, 39(5): 745-752.
Ralls, Katherine, Barbara Lundrigan, and Karl Kranz (1987). Mother-young Relationships in Captive Ungulates: Behavioral Changes over Time. Ethology, 75:1-14.
Ravndal, V. (1997). (Draft) A General Description of the Social and Cultural Environment Surrounding the Bison/Brucellosis Issue in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. (April 6, 1997).
Ravndal, V. (1998). Wildlands Without Wildlife Aren't Wild. Wildland Times, (Summer '98):4.
Reinhardt, Viktor (1984). Social Behavior in a Confined Bison Herd. Behavior, (1985) 92-95: 209-225.
Rhyan, J.C., K. Aune, T.J. Roffe, D.R. Ewalt, T.Gidlewski, and M. Philo (1998). "Preliminary Results on Tissue Localization Sites of Brucella abortus in Female Bison from Yellowstone National Park." In International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America. Edited by L. Irby and J. Knight, Montana State University, Bozeman.
Rhyan, Jack C., William J. Quinn, Larry S. Stackhouse, James J. Henderson, Darla R. Ewalt, Janet B. Payeur, Mark Johnson, and Mary Meagher (1994). Abortion Caused by Brucella abortus Biovar 1 in a Free-ranging Bison (Bison bison) from Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Widlife Diseases, 30(3): 445-446
Rifkin, Jeremy (---) The Great Bovine Switch. In Beyond Beef, pp. 72-80.
Roe, F.G. (---). Buffalo as a Possible Influence in the Development of Prairie Lands. The Canadian Historical Review, (date omitted) 275-287.
Roffe, T.J., J.C. Rhyan, K. Aune, L.M. Philo, D.R. Ewalt, T.Gidlewski and S.G. Hennager (1999). "Brucellosis in Yellowstone National Park Bison: Quantitative Serology and Infection." Journal of Wildlife Management 63(4):1132-37.
Roffe, T.J., J.C. Rhyan, K. Aune, L.M. Philo, M. Gilsdorf, S. Olsen, T.Gidlewski, and D.R. Ewalt (1998). Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Brucellosis in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) Bison (Bison bison), Second Year Summary." Abstract from International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 57. June 4-7, 1997, Bozeman, MT.
Rudd, Clayton G., editor (1985). Bison Lore. Special edition. Naturalist, 36(3).
Rutberg, Allen T. (1984). Birth Synchrony in American Bison (Bison bison): Response to Predation or Season? Journal of Mammalogy, 65(3): 418-423.
Sartore, G., C. Stormont, B.G. Morris, and A.A. Grunder (1968). Multiple Electrophoretic Forms of Carbonic Anhydrase in Red Cells of Domestic Cattle (bos taurus) and American Buffalo (Bison bison). Genetics (?) 61: 823-831.
Schneider, J. (1998). "The Genetic Impacts of Management Practices on North American Bison." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 175-79. June 4-7, 1997, Bozeman, MT.
Schullery, Paul (1997). Bison and the Symbolism of Change. National Park Service. Presented at Where the Buffalo Roam, Finding the Common Ground conference, Cody, Wy. (August 8-9, 1997).
Schwartz, Charles C. and James E. Ellis (1981). Feeding Ecology and Niche Separation in Some Native and Domestic Ungulates on the Shortgrass Prairie. Journal of Applied Ecology, 18: 343-353.
Schwartz, Charles C. and Mark A. Haroldson, eds. (1999). Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Investigations: Report of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team, 1998. Excerpts only; preliminary report, not for citation without permission of editors. USDI, USGS (November 1999).
Shaw, Don H. and J.R. Patel (1962). Demonstration of Antigenic Difference between the American Bison (Bison bison) and Domestic Cattle (Bos taurus). Nature, (November 3, 1962) 196(4853): 498-499.
Shaw, J.H. (1998). "Bison Ecology - What We Do and Do Not Know." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 113-20. June 4-7, 1997, Bozeman, MT.
Shull, Alisa M. and Alan R. Tipton (1987). Effective Population Size of Bison on the Wichita Mountains Wildlife Refuge. Conservation Biology, 1(1): 35-41.
Singer, Francis J. David M. Swift Michael B. Coughenour, and John D. Varley (1998). Thunder on the Yellowstone Revisited: An Assessment of Management of Native Ungulates by Natural Regulation, 1968-1993. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 26(3): 375-390.
Skinner, Curtis K. and Wayne B. Alcorn (1941, Supp. 1942-1951). History of the Bison in Yellowstone Park. Chief Ranger’s Office File No. 715-03. USDI, NPS, Yellowstone National Park, Wy.
Smith, D.W., K.M. Murphy, and D.S. Guernsey (1999). Yellowstone Wolf Project: Annual Report, 1998. NPS, Yellowstone Center for Resources, YNP, Wy.; YCR-NR-99-1.
Soper, J. Dewey (1941). History, Range and Home Life of the Northern Bison. Ecological Monographs, 11(4): 348-412.
Soule, M. and R. Noss. Rewilding and Biodiversity: Complementary Goals for Continental Conservation (1998). Yellowstone to Yukon Conservation Initiative. Wildearth, Vol.8, No.3.
Stormont, C., W.J. Miller, and Y. Suzuki (1961). Blood Groups and the Taxonomic Status of American Buffalo and Domestic Cattle. Evolution, 15: 196-208.
Stormont, C.J. (1993). "An Update on Bison Genetics." In Proceedings of the North American Public Bison Herds Symposium, edited by R.E. Walker, 15-37. July 27-29, 1993, LaCrosse, WI.
Telfer, Edmond S. and John P. Kelsall (1979). Studies of Morphological Parameters of Affecting Ungulate Locomotion in Snow. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 57: 2153-2159.
Telfer, Edmond S. and John P. Kelsall (1984). Adaptation of Some Large North American Mammals for Survival in Snow. Ecology, 65(6): 1828-1834.
Templeton, J.W., L.G. Adams, D.S. Davis, J. Feng and M. Izadjoo (1998). "Genetics Based Natural Resistance in Bison to Brucellosis." Abstract only. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, abstract 195. June 4-7, 1997, Bozeman, MT.
Thorne, E. Tom, Mary Meagher and Robert Hillman (1991). Brucellosis in Free-ranging Bison: Three Perspectives. Source incomplete; (ISBN 0-300-04970-6) Chapter 18, pp. 275-287.
Thorne, E. Tom, Jamie K. Morton, and Winthrop C. Ray (1979). Brucellosis, Its Effect and Impact on Elk in Western Wyoming. In North American Elk; Ecology, Behavior and Management, M.S. Boyce and L.O. Hayden-Wing, eds. University of WY, Laramie.
Trexler, H.A. (~1918?) The Buffalo Range of the Northwest. M.V.H.R., 7(4): 348-362.
Turner, Monica G., Yegang Wu, Linda L. Wallace, William H. Romme, and Antoinette Brenkert (994). Simulating Weather Interactions Among Ungulates, Vegetation, and Fire in Northern Yellowstone Park. Ecological Applications, 4(3): 472-496.
United States Animal Health Association (1997). Reintroduction of Elk in the Eastern United States. USAHA 1997, Resolution No.22 (October 18-24, 1997).
USDA (1965). Bison Herds in the United States. USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Animal Disease Eradication Division, Hyattsville, MD (distributed to NPS).
USDA (1998). 1997 Census of Agriculture - State Data (Montana). USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service.
USDA, APHIS (1980). Memo concerning: Annual Brucellosis Recertification Report - South Dakota. Veterinary Services, North Central Region, Denver, CO; Includes attachments (December 30, 1980).
USDA, APHIS (1996). Brucellosis Affected Herd Report, January 31, 1996. USDA, APHIS, Veterinary Services (VS), Cattle Diseases and Surveillance Staff (CDSS); Riverdale, MD (January 31, 1996).
USDA, APHIS (1997). Brucellosis and Yellowstone Bison. USDA, APHIS Veterinary Services; APHIS Web.
USDI, BLM (2000). Scoping Document: Pilot Bison Grazing 2000. Upper Snake River District, Idaho Falls, ID (March 22, 2000).
USDI, NPS (1964). Special Study: Bison Jumps of the High Plains. The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, Washington, DC.
USDI, NPS (1988) Foreword: Law, Policy, and Guidelines. In Management Policies. USDI, NPS (December 1988).
USDI, FWS (1962). The American Buffalo. Conservation Note 12. USDI, Washington, DC (July 1962); GPO 930410.
USDI, FWS (1995) American Buffalo: Bison bison. Wildlife Biologue, Biologue Series.
Van Den Brink, W. Jan (1980). The Behavior of Wisent and Bison in Large Enclosures. Acta Theriologica, 25(11): 115-130.
Van Vuren, Dirk (1987). Bison West of the Rocky Mountains, An Alternative Explanation. Northwest Science, 61(2): 65-69.
Van Zyll de Jong (1986). A Systematic Study of Recent Bison, with Particular Consideration of the Wood Bison (Bison bison athabascae Rhoads 1898). Publications in Natural Sciences, No. 6. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.
Wallace L.L., M.I. Dyer and J. Bell (1998). "Bison As Controllers Of Ecosystem Productivity and Stability." Abstract only. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, abstract 147. June 4-7, 1997, Bozeman, MT.
Ward, T.J., J.P. Bielawski, S.K. Davis, J.W. Templeton and J.N. Derr (1999). "Identification of Domestic Cattle Hybrids in Wild Cattle and Bison Species: A General Approach Using mtDNA Markers and the Parametric Bootstrap." Animal Conservation 2:51-57.
Whittlesey, Lee (1992). Historic Setting for the Possibility that Yellowstone’s Bison Herd Contracted Brucellosis from Nearby Domestic Cattle. Unpublished paper (March 1992).
Whittlesey, Lee (1994). Cows All Over: The Historic Setting for the Transmission of Brucellosis to Yellowstone Bison by Domestic Cattle. Wyoming Annals, (Winter ‘94-’95) 42-57.
Williams, Elizabeth S., Steven L. Cain, and Donald S. Davis (1994). Brucellosis: The Disease in Bison. Dept. Veterinary Sciences, University of Wyoming, Laramie (September 23, 1994).
William, E.S., E.T. Thorne, S.L. Anderson, and J.D. Herriges, Jr. (1993). Brucellosis in Free-Ranging Bison (Bison bison) from Teton County, Wyoming. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 29(1): 118-122.
Wilson, G.A. and C. Strobeck (1998). "Microsatellite Analysis of Genetic Variation in Wood and Plain Bison." In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Bison Ecology and Management in North America, 180-91. June 4-7, 1997, Bozeman, MT.
Yatchak, Jayne (1996). (Charts only) A Population and Behavioral Study of the North American Buffalo. Student paper. Field Problems II, Instructor Kim Skylander. Institution omitted.
Yellowstone National Park (1928). Summary of History of Yellowstone Buffalo Herd. Chronological fact sheet (1879-1928). YNP, Wy.
Yellowstone National Park (1964). Long-Range Wildlife and Habitat Management Plan for Yellowstone National Park. Approved 10/20/64. USDI, NPS, YNP.
Yellowstone National Park (1973). A Boundary Control Program for Yellowstone National Park. USDI, NPS, Yellowstone National Park, Wy. (Revised February 1973).
Yellowstone National Park (1986). Environmental Assessment: Bison Boundary Control Program. NPS, Yellowstone National Park, Wy. (August 1986).
Yellowstone National Park (1995). Executive Summary: Resource Management Plan. USDI, NPS, YNP, Wy.
Zarnke, Randall L. (1983). Serologic Survey for Selected Microbial Pathogens in Alaskan Wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 19(4): 324-329.
Zarnke, Randall L. and G.A. Erickson (1990). Serum Antibody Prevalence of Parainfluenza in a Free-Ranging Bison (Bison bison) Herd from Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 26(3): 416-419.
Zarnke, Randall L. and Linda K. Schlater (1984). Abscesses in a Free-Ranging Bison in Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 20(2): 151-152.
Zaugg, Jerry L., Sharon K. Taylor, Bruce C. Anderson, David L. Hunter, Jerry Ryder, and Mona Divine (1993). Hematologic, Serologic Values, Histopathologic and Fecal Evaluations of Bison From Yellowstone Park. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 29(3): 453-457
Hazing: The forced removal of wild bison from their chosen habitat. Hazing operations taking place under the Interagency Bison Management Plan (IBMP) are directed by the Montana Department of Livestock (DOL) in the state of Montana, and by Yellowstone Park rangers within Yellowstone National Park. Hazing is an ecologically destructive activity conducted with helicopters, snowmobiles, horses, motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, and on foot. Hazing often results in injury, death, or disturbance to bison and other wild species.
Introgression: The transfer of genetic information from one species to another as a result of hybridization between them. Introgression describes the incorporation of alleles (a variant form of a gene) from one species into the gene pool of a second species.
Subspecies: A taxonomic category that ranks below species and is commonly indicative of geographical isolation. Organisms belonging to different subspecies are generally capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring, yet do not do so due to geographic isolation, sexual selection, or other factors.
For more great learning materials,
please click here to visit our Bison Research Papers page.